Tag Archive: Damage

Why is Nematode Damage Patchy in Crop Fields? How Does this Affect Management Decisions?

Why is Nematode Damage Patchy in Crop Fields? How Does this Affect Management Decisions?

I’ve had the opportunity to visit a number of grower fields this summer to assess potential nematode damage and I’ve often been asked this question: “Why is nematode damage worse in one section of a field than another, or worse in one field than another one nearby? ” This question reflects the fact that nematode population densities and damage are often patchy both within a field and between different fields.

Patchy necrosis (dead or dying plants) and chlorosis (yellowing) in a peanut field with severe root-knot nematode infestation.

There are a number of reasons nematode infestations or damage is often patchy:

  1. Management history

This is an important factor for variation between fields.  Factors such as crop rotation, cover crop use, weed management, nematicide use, use of resistant cultivars, and other practices all affect nematode populations.  Nematodes need a living host crop to feed on and reproduce, so nematode populations will be higher in areas where a host cash crop, cover crop, or weed has grown.

  1. Nematode dispersal is (usually) relatively slow

Nematodes don’t move far on their own.  Rather, they are moved by human or natural activity, often slowly. Nematodes are moved to new fields or moved within a field on farm equipment, infected plant material, or water or wind-born soil.  Therefore, a new nematode infection in a field often starts from a single point, such as near a field entrance, and spreads relatively slowly.

  1. Field variation in soil type and other properties or features

Soil properties such as soil type, temperature, and moisture can affect nematode reproduction, and when these factors vary within or between fields, nematode population densities do as well.  Most nematodes prefer sandy soil, and are more likely to thrive in sandy fields or sandy patches within a field.  One exception is reniform nematode which tends to do best with moderate amounts of sand (70-80%) and is a pathogen of cotton, soybean, and most vegetables.  Nematodes prefer a moderate amount of moisture and relatively high temperatures, so if these factors vary across a field, perhaps due to hills and valleys, nematode populations may vary as well.

  1. Field variation in crop health, weeds, pathogens, biocontrol organisms, and other biological factors

Crop health can also affect the severity of nematode damage, as a healthy plant can better withstand nematode infection than a plant stressed by nutrient deficiency, drought, competition from weeds, or other factors that can vary across a field.  Similarly, crop damage is often increased when soil-borne pathogens and nematodes co-infect.  A number of soil-borne bacteria and fungi are known to kill nematodes and could act as natural biocontrol agents, helping keep nematode populations low.  Variation in populations of pathogens and biocontrol agents across fields may contribute to nematode damage or population variation.

Patchy chlorosis (yellowing) in a peanut field due to root-knot nematode.

Knowledge of population density should influence nematode management practices in a number of ways:

  1. Work to control the spread of nematodes

Because human activity is one of the main ways nematodes are moved, human actions can help slow nematode spread, especially from field to field.  Use nematode-free planting material, don’t move plant material from field to field, and wash equipment free of soil when possible.

  1. Account for field variation when sampling for nematodes

Sampling for nematodes is an important part of a nematode management strategy.  When sampling for nematodes, sample areas at high risk of nematode damage (sandy, poor fertility) separately from areas at lower risk of damage.  This could coincide with soil mapping, such as with a Veris rig or soil type maps, and division into management zones.

  1. Spot-treat areas with nematode problems

Once a field is infected, nematode management relies on crop rotation, resistant cultivars, and nematicide application.  Particularly for expensive, high-input nematode management practices such as nematicide application, treating only the areas of a field with nematode problems can save time and money.  Ideally, areas with nematode problems should be identified by sampling and could coincide with management zones based on soil properties.

  1. Promote crop health and manage weeds

Soil type and other factors that affect nematode distribution are hard to control, but growers have some control over crop health and weeds.  A healthy crop is more tolerant of nematodes, so properly fertilized crops and the use of other practices to promote vigor can reduce yield losses.  As discussed above, weeds also harbor nematodes, so it is important to manage weeds early.

Further information and resources can be found in the following UF/IFAS EDIS fact sheets:

Sampling for nematodes

Florida cotton nematode management guide

Nematode management in tomatoes, peppers, and eggplant

Precision agriculture



Author: Zane Grabau – zgrabau@ufl.edu

Zane Grabau is a field crop nematology Assistant Professor at the University of Florida.

Zane Grabau

Permanent link to this article: http://franklin.ifas.ufl.edu/newsletters/2017/09/29/why-is-nematode-damage-patchy-in-crop-fields-how-does-this-affect-management-decisions/

Inspect and Wash to Prevent Azalea Lace Bug Damage

Inspect and Wash to Prevent Azalea Lace Bug Damage

Now is the time to prevent your azaleas from being attacked by lace bugs. The azalea lace bug, Stephanitis pyrioides, overwinters as eggs on the underside of infested leaves. Eggs hatch in late March and early April. The insect then passes through five nymphal instars before becoming an adult. It takes approximately one month for the insect to complete development from egg to adult and there are at least four generations per year. Valuable plants that are susceptible to lace bug damage should be inspected in the early spring for the presence of overwintering lace bug adults, eggs and newly hatched nymphs. Inspect these plants every two weeks during the growing season for developing lace bug infestations.

Both adults and nymphs have piercing-sucking mouthparts and remove sap as they feed from the underside of the leaf. Lace bug damage to the foliage detracts greatly from the plants’ beauty, reduces the plants’ ability to produce food, decreases plant vigor and causes the plant to be more susceptible to damage by other insects, diseases or unfavorable weather conditions. The azalea can become almost silver or bleached in appearance from the feeding lace bug damage.

However, lace bugs often go undetected until the infested plants show severe damage sometime into the summer. By then several generations of lace bugs have been weakening the plant.  Inspecting early in the spring and simply washing them off the underside of the leaves can help to avoid damage later and the need for pesticides.

Adult lace bugs are flattened and rectangular in shape measuring 1/8 to 1/4 inch long. The area behind the head and the wing covers form a broadened, lace-like body covering. The wings are light amber to transparent in color. Lace bugs leave behind spiny black spots of frass (excrement).

Lace bug nymphs are flat and oval in shape with spines projecting from their bodies in all directions. A lace bug nymph goes through five growth stages (instars) before becoming an adult. At each stage the nymph sheds its skin (molts) and these old skins often remain attached to the lower surface of infested leaves.

Azalea lace bug eggs are football-shaped and are transparent to cream-colored. Lace bug eggs are found on the lower leaf surface, usually alongside or inserted into a leaf vein. Adult females secrete a varnish-like substance over the eggs that hardens into a scab-like protective covering.


For more information go to: http://entomology.ifas.ufl.edu/creatures/orn/shrubs/azalea_lace_bug.htm


Author: Sheila Dunning – sdunning@ufl.edu


Sheila Dunning

Permanent link to this article: http://franklin.ifas.ufl.edu/newsletters/2017/03/21/inspect-and-wash-to-prevent-azalea-lace-bug-damage/

Weed Control Can Also Reduce Insect Damage

Weed Control Can Also Reduce Insect Damage

A caterpillar feeding.

A caterpillar feeding at the edge of a field. Photo Credit: UF/IFAS Extension

Insects, like humans, do not like exerting more effort than is necessary. They are also picky eaters. When an insect lands on a plant that it cannot eat or doesn’t prefer to eat, then it must exert more time and effort to search for a more palatable host plant. Fortunately for the farmer, the more time spent searching for a host equates to less time damaging crops and multiplying. Sometimes, the pest will evacuate the area completely and hopefully perish. Unfortunately, however, weeds growing in and around your crops not only rob the soil of nutrients, but many weed species serve as hosts to plant pests. These weeds are not only detrimental to a cash crop, but they can also serve as a host to crop pests on the edge of a field.

A few simple practices can help exclude pests from your crops:

  1. Sanitation – Keep the ground immediately adjacent to your fields (10-20 feet) free from weeds. Most likely, you have roads throughout your fields. It is important to control weeds on these roads and to extend the weed free area around your fields out to at least 10 feet.
  2. Scouting – Not only should you scout the crops in your field, but you should also scout the areas around your field. Scout the areas especially if you did not follow step number one.
  3. Plant Trap Crops – A trap crop can be planted to draw pests away from the cash crop. Trap crops are an alternate host for the pest. They can be planted along the perimeter of the field and sprayed with insecticide when an insect threshold is reached. View Trap Cropping in Vegetable Production: One Tool for Managing Pests for a list of trap crops suitable for the Southeast.

Insects do not like their feeding patterns to be disrupted. You can modify their feeding progression by eliminating host plant species along their path to destruction. In turn, you can potentially reduce the amount of insecticide applications needed to control them which saves you both time and money. Two publications that will give you more information on this topic are Intercropping, Crop Diversity and Pest Management and Exclusion Methods for Managing Greenhouse Vegetable Pests.



Author: Matt Lollar – mlollar@ufl.edu

Matt Lollar is the Jackson County Horticulture Agent. He has 5 years of experience with University of Florida/IFAS Extension and he began his career in Sanford, FL as the Seminole County Horticulture Agent. Matt is originally from Belle Fontaine, AL. He earned his MS and BS degrees in Horticulture Production from Auburn University.

Matt Lollar

Permanent link to this article: http://franklin.ifas.ufl.edu/newsletters/2016/07/23/weed-control-can-also-reduce-insect-damage/

Planning ahead can reduce home and landscape damage

Planning ahead can reduce home and landscape damage

Even large oaks may fall during a tornado. Photo credit: northescambia.com

Even large, healthy oaks may fall during a tornado. Photo credit: northescambia.com

When we think of bad weather in Florida, hurricanes are typically the first thing that comes to mind. In reality, Florida is 4th in the nation in tornado frequency—and when adjusted for frequency per square mile, we are actually number 1. Residents of Escambia County are believers now, as the community reels from enduring two tornadoes in the span of a week. Both rated as EF3 storms, the winds in the twisters (136-165 mph) were nearly equivalent to a Category 4 or 5 hurricane. The western Panhandle and much of south Alabama were under tornado watches as the most recent band of thunderstorms moved through.

Based on a thorough study of surviving trees after hurricanes in Florida, there are several species of trees best suited to windstorms. For north Florida, some of the top species are: Florida scrub hickory, several native holly species, Southern magnolia, sand live oak, myrtle oak, and bald and pond cypress. Data from the full study and an in-depth overview is available from the University of Florida.  To prepare for a heavy thunderstorm or a milder hurricane, it is wise to replace or plant trees with the most wind-resistant species. Because of the damage from falling trees in storms, many homeowners are nervous about planting trees. However, there are so many benefits to healthy trees in a landscape that they vastly outweigh the small risk of them falling.

Keep in mind that tornadoes are the most violent natural disasters and may cause complete devastation of homes, neighborhoods, and forests in a matter of seconds. After the Escambia County tornadoes, we witnessed large uprooted trees, downed power lines, flipped vehicles and blown-off roofs. Several homes and apartments were completely flattened or blown off their foundations. Luckily, the odds are in one’s favor of not getting hit directly by a tornado—because there’s often little anyone can do for a landscape in that situation. It’s best to hunker down in a windowless inner room or hallway, which saved the lives of hundreds during the last round of bad weather.

Updraft entering the garage of this house may have caused the roof blowout above it. Photo credit: Carrie Stevenson

Wind entering the garage of this house may have caused the roof blowout above it. Photo credit: Carrie Stevenson

However, there’s good news that work that can be done to help protect a home during storms. Hardening homes through “windstorm mitigation” techniques can prevent updraft from strong winds. A house is only as strong as its weakest area, and those are typically the connections between the walls, roof, and foundation. A wind-rated garage door and/or brace are crucial, as strong winds can enter a garage and blow out the roof above it.

When strong winds enter a hope, their force moving out can cause an updraft and lift off the roof. Graphic courtesy UF IFAS.

When strong winds enter a home, their force moving out can cause an updraft and lift off the roof. Graphic courtesy UF IFAS.

In Escambia and Santa Rosa County, the local nonprofit “Rebuild Northwest Florida” operates a cost-sharing program to help residents harden homes. After the tornado in Century (near the Alabama border in north Escambia County), engineers from Rebuild examined a home that suffered a direct hit from a tornado. The home had been retrofit with crucial wind mitigation techniques and sustained no structural damage. Buildings, sheds, and homes all around it were destroyed. Examples of several wind mitigation techniques, including storm shutters, wind-rated windows, garage door braces and a tornado shelter are available for public viewing at the Escambia County Extension office in our windstorm mitigation building.

As the spring storm season heats up and rolls into hurricane season, keep in mind these suggestions for both the landscape and home. As always, contact your local Extension office if you have any questions.


Author: Carrie Stevenson – ctsteven@ufl.edu

Coastal Sustainability Agent, Escambia County Extension

Carrie Stevenson

Permanent link to this article: http://franklin.ifas.ufl.edu/newsletters/2016/03/02/planning-ahead-can-reduce-home-and-landscape-damage/

Researchers Assessing Smutgrass Damage to Pastures with Survey

A pasture infested with smutgrass, which is not grazed by livestock and competes with improved forage grasses.

A pasture infested with smutgrass, which is not grazed by livestock, competes with improved forage grasses.

University of Florida Researchers are attempting to gather information on smutgrass in Florida.  This effort is part of a grant they received from USDA-NIFA.  This survey is being conducted to provide a basic understanding of the current status of smutgrass infestations, current management methods, and approximate economic impact on grazing lands in Florida.

The information collected from this survey will be used to conduct further research on integrated management strategies for smutgrass in perennial grass pastures.  We estimate that this survey should require less than 15 minutes to complete.  All answers are anonymous and we will make no attempt to identify respondents.

Complete the survey online:
Online Livestock Producer Smutgrass Survey

or download, print and return by fax or mail:

Printed Livestock Producer Smutgrass Survey

Thank you!

Brent Sellers, Ph.D.
Extension Weed Specialist
Range Cattle REC & Dept of Agronomy



Author: Doug Mayo – demayo@ufl.edu

Jackson County Extension Director, Livestock & Forages Agent. My true expertise is with beef cattle and pasture management, but I can assist with information on other livestock species, as well as recreational fish ponds.

Doug Mayo

Permanent link to this article: http://franklin.ifas.ufl.edu/newsletters/2015/09/19/researchers-assessing-smutgrass-damage-to-pastures-with-survey/

Late-flowering Magnolias Avoid Freeze Damage

Late-flowering Magnolias Avoid Freeze Damage

‘Jon Jon’ magnolia

This winter’s recurring freezes and frosts have played havoc with early flowering plants like magnolia. While buds are freeze-resistant, open magnolia flowers can quickly turn brown after exposure to temperatures about 30°F or lower. One way to avoid freeze-damaged flowers is to choose later blooming cultivars. These selections have flowers that open in north Florida during late February or later.


The Magnolia Garden at the University of Florida/IFAS North Florida Research and Education Center (NFREC) in Quincy has more than 150 types of magnolias planted. Based on over 10 years of data, five of the latest blooming magnolias are Daybreak, Jane, Betty, Jon Jon and Ann. These cultivars have peak bloom dates ranging from late February (Ann) to mid-March (Daybreak). Thus, they bloom after most flower-damaging freezes.


Daybreak has beautiful, large shell-pink flowers on a small tree. Jon Jon has huge white flowers with a streak of red-purple at the base. These fragrant flowers open goblet-shaped the first day, and then open wider to a cup-and-saucer shape on subsequent days. At NFREC, Daybreak and Jon Jon have about 6 weeks of flowers and grow as single-stem or multi-stem trees up to about 30 feet tall.


Jane, Betty and Ann are sister cultivars developed at the National Arboretum. As you would expect with sisters, they look-alike, and have a shrubby or multi-stemmed tree habit, generally growing about 15 feet tall and wide (much shorter and wider than Daybreak and Jon Jon). All three have upright, cup-shaped flowers in various shades of pink and red-purple. Betty has medium red-purple flowers that are the largest of the three, over 4 inches. Jane has 3- to 4-inch flowers that are medium pink outside and white or pale pink inside. Ann has the smallest flowers (3 inches) but they are also the darkest red-purple. As an added bonus, Ann boasts the ability to produce sporadic flowers all summer long! This results in Ann having an average of 13 weeks of flowers, as compared to Jane’s 10 weeks and Betty’s 8 weeks.


These five cultivars are generally available at garden centers during spring. Ann and Jane can be found at many “Big Box” stores. All five can be purchased at “good” independent garden centers and, as a last resort, from mail-order/Internet nurseries.


For more information about these and other magnolias, see Florida Extension publication, ‘Jon Jon’ Magnolia: A Late-Flowering Deciduous Magnolia for Northern Florida, and other magnolia publications here. Also, Magnolia Society International is a great resource with a very informative website. (Note the slide show below of Jon Jon, Ann, Betty, Daybreak and Jane.)





Author: Gary Knox – gwknox@ufl.edu

Gary Knox is an Extension Specialist and Professor of Environmental Horticulture with the University of Florida at the North Florida Research and Education Center in Quincy. Dr. Knox’s research interests focus on evaluating species and cultivars of woody plants for their invasive potential as well as for ornamental characteristics. In addition to research plantings, Dr. Knox is working with a nonprofit volunteer group to develop “Gardens of the Big Bend,” a series of botanical, teaching and evaluation gardens at the Center.

Gary Knox

Permanent link to this article: http://franklin.ifas.ufl.edu/newsletters/2015/02/24/late-flowering-magnolias-avoid-freeze-damage/

Property Law and Tree Damage

Property Law and Tree Damage

After storms and when homeowners are doing “spring cleaning” around their yards, Extension agents are routinely asked about whose responsibility it is to maintain a tree along a property line. This becomes particularly important in a situation where a property owner’s tree or branch falls and causes damage to their neighbor’s home or possessions.
To clarify this often contentious issue, reference to legal experts is necessary. In a series of publications called “The Handbook of Florida Fence and Property Law,” two attorneys and a University of Florida law student explain several statutes that give us direction. The section on “Trees and Landowner Responsibility” goes into further detail and cites case-law, but for ease of reading it is summarized below.

Situation 1: Removing a healthy tree on a shared property line.
If two neighbors share a tree on their property line and one of them wants to remove it, the adjoining landowner must give their permission. Removing trees can impact property value, heating/cooling bills, or aesthetic value. Without a neighbor’s consent, the landowner cutting down a tree can be legally liable for damages.

Hurricanes can have serious impacts on trees in their path. Photo credit: Pensacola News Journal

Hurricanes can have serious impacts on trees in their path. Photo credit: Pensacola News Journal

Situation 2: Responsibility for overhanging branches and roots.
Let’s imagine a big spring storm hits your neighborhood, with tons of rain, wind, and lightning. You wake up in the morning and see that a large branch fell from your neighbor’s tree and crushed your kids’ basketball goal. If branches from the neighbor’s tree were otherwise healthy, they are not responsible for any damages resulting from the tree. If it was dead, however, and their negligence contributed to the branch falling, they will be responsible for damages.
Keep in mind that if the neighbor’s tree/branches/roots are in good health but interfering with something in your yard, you may trim them at your own expense. The same goes for your tree hanging in their yard, so while it’s not required, it’s always good to have a conversation first to let them know your plans.


After Hurricane Ivan, this tree's root system completed uprooted and destroyed and adjacent fence. Photo credit: Beth Bolles

After Hurricane Ivan, this tree’s root system completed uprooted and destroyed and adjacent fence. Photo credit: Beth Bolles

Situation 3: Hurricane Ana, the first big storm of 2015, blows your neighbor’s tree over, into your yard.
Just like the situation with branches and roots, the same principle goes for an entire tree falling on adjoining property—if the tree was alive, it’s the responsibility of the person whose yard it fell in. If it was dead when it fell, it’s the responsibility of the tree’s owner to pay for damages.

In a complicated situation involving property damage, the saying, “good fences make good neighbors” only goes so far. Be sure to note the health of your trees throughout the year and trim back dead or dying branches. If you see serious decay or have concerns about a tree’s health, contact  your county Extension office or a certified arborist. Finally, if the circumstances aren’t easily determined, be sure to contact a licensed attorney and/or your insurance company for direction.


Author: Carrie Stevenson – ctsteven@ufl.edu

Coastal Sustainability Agent, Escambia County Extension

Carrie Stevenson

Permanent link to this article: http://franklin.ifas.ufl.edu/newsletters/2015/02/10/property-law-and-tree-damage/

Triple-Threat in One Soybean Field: Grasshopper Damage, Asian Soybean Rust and Palmer Amaranth

Example of a soybean plant being eaten by grasshoppers

Example of a soybean plant being eaten by grasshoppers

September generally signals the start of peanut and cotton harvests, but in many counties of northwest Florida late planted soybeans still need continued scouting for disease, insect, and weed pests.  Unfortunately, one producer here in the western Florida panhandle is dealing with all three.

The producer initially called our office to determine whether grasshopper damage in the field was enough to warrant a control measure.  Grasshoppers are generally not a deal breaker in bean production, but after examination of the beans that were planted in wheat stubble, it was determined there were enough grasshoppers of varying life stages doing enough damage to necessitate control.

Small grasshoppers (1 inch or less) are easier to control than larger ones.

Small grasshoppers (1 inch or less) are easier to control than larger ones.

According to the Alabama Cooperative Extension Soybean Production Guide, grasshoppers should be controlled to prevent greater than 20-percent leaf loss from pod set until maturity.  Auburn research has shown that grasshoppers have emerged as a pest of soybeans in recent years, primarily in conservation tillage systems. After plants reach the reproductive stage, they will no longer set new leaves.  High leaf loss from pests at this point can reduce yields.

The table below listing grasshopper control recommendations is found in the publication referenced above.


Insecticide   and Formulation

Amount of Formulation on per Acre

Lb Active Ingredient per Acre

Minimum Day Last Application Harvest

     Orthene 97

0.5 lb



      Orthene 90s




Beta-cyfluthrin   (Baythroid)

2.0-2.8 oz



Bifenthrin   (Brigade 2EC)

2.1-6.4 oz



Bifenthris   (Discipline 2EC)

2.1-6.4 oz



      Sevin 4F, XLR

1 quart



      Sevin 80S

0.63 lb



Gamma-cyhalothrin   (Prolex 1.25)

1.28-1.54 fl.oz.



Lamba-cyhalorthin(Karate   Z 2.08 CS)

1.6-1.92 oz



Methyl   Parathion 4EC

1.5 pint



Penncap-M   2 FM

2-3 pint



Zeta   cypermethrin (Mustang   Max 0.8EC)

3.2-4 oz















Soybean loopers, velvetbean caterpillars, and armyworms were also being scouted while surveying the grasshopper damage, but were not found.  Instead, however, soybean rust was discovered.  This field had not yet been sprayed to protect from rust.  Preliminary diagnosis of the soybean rust was confirmed by Dr. Ed Sikora, Auburn plant pathologist.

Soybean rust prior to sporulating

Soybean rust prior to sporulating

Dr. Sikora preaches “Spray or Pay” when it comes to soybean rust, meaning all soybean producers should be actively managing soybean rust in order to prevent diminished yields.  According to the University of Florida EDIS publication,  Asian Soybean Rust, control options include applications of strobilurins (pyraclostrobin, azoxystrobin, trifloxystrobin), triazoles (tebuconazole, propiconazole), and tank mixes of strobilurins and triazole compounds. Yield increases of 20 bu/A have been noted with fungicides as compared to non-treated  plots.  Dr. David Wright, UF/IFAS Agronomy Specialist, suggested that the grower tank mix a triazole product or Topguard with the insecticide used to treat the grasshoppers.  For a list of different control options based on crop stage and disease incidence, see Auburn’s Fungicide Use Strategies for Asian Soybean Rust.

Finally, the producer was already aware he had herbicide resistant palmer amaranth and has been taking control measures.  There are many methods to help reduce and eliminate palmer amaranth in a given field, but herbicide treatments vary between crops and cropping systems.  If you have questions concerning managing herbicide resistant palmer on your farm, contact your local county extension agent directly.  If you see palmer amaranth at this point in your field, roguing the plants and disposing of them properly is a good option, though it is very time consuming and tiring.  Additional palmer amaranth control information can be found in the following UF publication: Control of Palmer Amaranth in Agronomic Crops

Herbicide resistant palmer amaranth

Herbicide resistant palmer amaranth




Author: Libbie Johnson – libbiej@ufl.edu

Agriculture agent at UF IFAS Escambia County Extension.

Libbie Johnson

Permanent link to this article: http://franklin.ifas.ufl.edu/newsletters/2013/09/13/triple-threat-in-one-soybean-field-grasshopper-damage-asian-soybean-rust-and-palmer-amaranth/

Corn Leaf: Thrip Damage, Not a Disease

Corn Leaf: Thrip Damage, Not a Disease

Thrip Damage: A Closer Look

Thrip Damage:
A Closer Look

Thrips are most noticeable, and of greatest concern on corn at two periods during the growing season: on young seedling plants, and at ear formation. On seedling plants their feeding makes the plants look stunted. At ear formation, thrip injury to developing kernels provides entry for infection by Fusarium spp. and subsequent Fusarium ear rot disease.

Some may mistake this late season thrip damage as a disease issue. If you see this type of symptom in your field, contact your county extension agent for a positive diagnosis of thrip injury or foliar disease.

Treatment is usually not necessary on corn seedlings, because plants recover from thrip injury. Thrips are also beneficial at this time because of their role as mite predators. No threshold has been established for damage from thrips at ear formation. Treating for thrips will probably not  prevent spread of Fusarium ear rot disease.

Ear Fill Thrip Damage to Corn Leaves

Ear Fill Thrip Damage to Corn Leaves




Author: John Doyle Atkins – srcextag@ufl.edu

John Doyle Atkins is the Agricultural Agent in Santa Rosa County.

John Doyle Atkins

Permanent link to this article: http://franklin.ifas.ufl.edu/newsletters/2013/06/29/corn-leaf-thrip-damage-not-a-disease/

Control Wild Hogs to Prevent Crop Damage

Corral trap with rooter gate.

Corral trap with rooter gate.

Wild hogs are a nuisance to farmers, timberland owners and even subdivision residents.  With recent rains, wild hogs are expanding their ranges and looking for new feeding areas.  The time to control wild hogs on the farm is before the crop is in.  Basically, it is harder to trap the hogs when they have an “all you can eat buffet” on the outside of the trap.  If you see wild hog tracks and signs around your farm, start planning for control before you experience any crop damage.  There are companies who remove wild hogs from your property using corral traps and hunting.

A combination of trapping and hunting is usually required in fields.  Corral traps should be large enough (25-35 foot in diameter) to allow the whole sounder (group of female wild hogs and their young) to enter and move around.  Hogs will need to be conditioned to the trap by baiting the trap and allowing the hogs to feed in the trap for a few days.  Once the sounder is conditioned to entering the trap, the trap can be set either through trip wires or remote.  Using trip wires reduces the success rate.  Using a remote in combination with a game camera increases the success rate.  Loner boar hogs and trap sour sows can be shot or hunted with dogs.

In Florida, wild hogs may be hunted year round on private land (with permission of the landowner) and at night with no permit required.  Hogs may be trapped year round.  Trapped hogs can be shot on site with no permit required, or transported which requires individuals to register with The Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services as a Feral Swine Dealer.  Wild hogs cannot be trapped and released onto public land.  Trapped wild hogs can be transported to slaughter, to private lands, or to an approved Feral Swine Holding Facility.  For more information on Wild Hogs, go to: Wild Hogs in Florida: Ecology and Management and Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission’s Hog Hunting website.



Author: Jennifer Bearden – heady@ufl.edu

Agriculture Agent
Okaloosa County

Jennifer Bearden

Permanent link to this article: http://franklin.ifas.ufl.edu/newsletters/2013/05/31/control-wild-hogs-to-prevent-crop-damage/

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