Tag Archive: First

Bay County Deploys First Super Reefs in Panama City Beach

Bay County Deploys First Super Reefs in Panama City Beach

Super Reef Deployment Location Graphic

Earlier this year, Bay County completed an artificial reef project in Gulf waters approximately 3 nautical miles (nm) south of the Panama City Beach Pier (Pier Park) and 11 nm west of St Andrew Bay Pass in Small Area Artificial Reef Site D. On May 14, five Super Reefs were deployed, each weighing approximately 36,000 lbs and rising 18 feet from the ocean floor. Typical artificial reef modules are only about 8 feet tall. This was the first time Super Reefs were deployed in western Bay County in the Panama City Beach area. The project provides marine habitat comparable to sinking a large vessel.

Mexico Beach Artificial Reef Association (MBARA) supported Bay County and Walter Maine during the deployment efforts. MBARA provided this YouTube video documenting the deployment and post-deployment dive survey. During the survey, divers noted baitfish already utilizing the new habitat. The Super Reef module coordinates and details were verified as follows:


Patch Reef # Latitude Longitude Depth (ft) Permit Area
BC2015 Set 17 (1) 30° 10.196N 85° 54.607 W 74 SAARS D
BC2015 Set 18 (2) 30° 10.179 N 85° 54.567 W 75 SAARS D
BC2015 Set 19 (3) 30° 10.176 N 85° 54.603 W 75 SAARS D
BC2015 Set 20 (4) 30° 10.153N 85° 54.594 W 73 SAARS D
BC2015 Set 21 (5) 30° 10.138 N 85° 54.602 W 73 SAARS D

Previous monitoring and research suggest it takes 3 to 5 years for new reefs to reach full development of the associated marine ecosystem. Bay County will work with local anglers, divers, reef associations, and agencies to evaluate the performance of the new reef materials and the reef design.

Bay County artificial reef projects seek to use material that meets program goals and objectives. In this case, larger reef materials were selected to support larger reef fish such as amberjack, grouper, and snapper. Individual reef modules were spaced to support fish forage areas and accommodate multiple users including anglers and divers.

FL Artifcial Reefs FB



Funding for this $ 60,000 project was provided by Florida Fish and Wildlife Commission’s Artificial Reef Program. Additional reef projects were deployed by the Mexico Beach Artificial Reef Association earlier in the week. The Bay County Artificial Association (BCARA) is also planning new reef deployments in Bay County. Learn more about Bay County’s public artificial reefs at http://x.co/reefm. Florida Sea Grant hosts a Facebook page focused on news and information related to Florida’s Artificial Reefs. You can visit the page for latest information from around the state at https://www.facebook.com/floridaartificialreefs.




Walter Marine’s Maranatha deploying one of the five Super Reefs placed 3 nm south of Pier Park. The Super Reefs weigh greater than 18 tons and are 18 feet tall. Photo by Bay County Artificial Reef Coordinator, Allen Golden.

Walter Marine’s Maranatha deploying one of the five Super Reefs placed 3 nm south of Pier Park. The Super Reefs weigh more than 18 tons and are 18 feet tall. Photo by Bay County Artificial Reef Coordinator, Allen Golden.


















Deployment of Super Reefs. Pictures provided by Bob Cox Mexico Beach Artificial Reef Foundation Picture2 Picture3 Picture4 Picture5 Picture6 Picture7






Author: Scott Jackson – lsj@ufl.edu

UF/IFAS Bay County Extension Florida Sea Grant Regional Specialized Agent (Artificial Reefs and Fisheries)

Scott Jackson

Permanent link to this article: http://franklin.ifas.ufl.edu/newsletters/2016/08/18/bay-county-deploys-first-super-reefs-in-panama-city-beach/

Florida’s First Capital and First High Rise? – Jefferson County’s Letchworth-Love Mounds Archeological State Park

Florida’s First Capital and First High Rise? – Jefferson County’s Letchworth-Love Mounds Archeological State Park

It’s a calm clear weekday in January. There’s a single buzzard soaring above, two squirrels scurrying in the trees and a pileated woodpecker calling in the distance. It’s hard to imagine this site was the capital of civilization in North Florida some 1200 or more years ago. The visible exception is the weathered remnant of “The Great Mound”, a massive earthen mound forty-six feet high and over 300 feet wide at its base. This is the largest Native American ceremonial mound in Florida, containing millions of twenty pound baskets of earth. Archeological sampling shows the builders mixed different types of earth to create a more stable structure. The mound’s persistence confirms the builders’ wisdom.

Twelve hundred years of erosion and overgrowth contrast with this Park depiction of the Great Mound in it's heyday Photo: Jed Dillard

Twelve hundred years of erosion and overgrowth contrast with this Park depiction of the Great Mound in it’s heyday
Photo: Jed Dillard

Artifacts show the site was occupied up to 12, 000 years ago, long before the mound was built. The mound’s builders are believed to have been members of the late Swift Creek (200-450 A.D.) and early to middle Weeden Island cultures, a group of Native Americans who lived in North Florida between 450 and 900 A.D. Other authorities have suggested the mound was more of the style of later cultures, for example the Mississippians. Either way, these were relative new comers compared to the Paleoindians. Paleoindian tool marks were found on a mastodon tusk from the Aucilla River bottom and a stone point was found in the skull of a Bison antiquus raised from the Wacissa River bottom. Bison antiquus is believed to have disappeared around 10,000 years ago and the mastodon tusk was carbon dated as 12,000 years old.
The Letchworth-Love Mounds archeological site in western Jefferson County preserves Mound 1, as it’s called in documents. Discovered in 1932, but officially unrecorded until 1975, the mound is surrounded by over twenty mounds outside the park in the area on the shore of Lake Miccosukee. The Lake Jackson Mounds Archeological State Park north of Tallahassee is believed to be a later, separate settlement.
At the height of its functions, the immediate Great Mound complex had 10 smaller mounds and two plazas. The Mound itself had two side platforms, an earthen ramp and a peak styled similar to Meso-American structures. The main village was to the south of the complex near Lloyd Creek. Other high ground near water in the county hold evidence of at least temporary camps and towns.
Now the capital of Florida civilization is 30 miles west in another skyscraper, and the chiefs are debating ownership of the artifacts from the oldest capital. Wouldn’t this be a good time to learn more about our history?
The park is located on South Sun Ray Road off US 90 and is open from sunrise to sunset. Don’t expect a crowd.


Author: Jed Dillard – dillardjed@ufl.edu

Jefferson County Livestock and Natural Resources Agent with a commercial cow/calf background. My degree is in animal breeding, but I do more work wth forage systems. Long time clover/legume booster for both livestock and wildlife

Jed Dillard

Permanent link to this article: http://franklin.ifas.ufl.edu/newsletters/2016/01/25/floridas-first-capital-and-first-high-rise-jefferson-countys-letchworth-love-mounds-archeological-state-park/

Season’s First Incidence of Cotton Corynespora Target Spot Confirmed in Santa Rosa County

Season’s First Incidence of Cotton Corynespora Target Spot Confirmed in Santa Rosa County


Fig1: Target spot on cotton. This season’s first incidence of Corynespora target spot in cotton has been confirmed in Santa Rosa County.

Dr. Michael J. Mulvaney
(Cropping Systems Specialist, University of Florida, IFAS Extension, West Florida Research and Education Center, Jay, FL), Dr. Nicholas S. Dufault (Dept. of Plant Pathology, University of Florida, IFAS Extension, Gainesville, FL), Mike Donahoe (County Director, University of Florida, IFAS Extension, Santa Rosa County, FL)

This season’s first incidence of Corynespora target spot in cotton has been confirmed on research plots at the West Florida Research and Education Center in Jay, FL in Santa Rosa County. This is the first confirmed incidence of target spot on cotton in the Southeast this year.

The occurrence was observed on July 7, 2015 in a trial that was strip-tilled into cotton stubble. We do not yet see target spot on nearby plots that were bottom plowed into soybean, but we expect to see it there soon especially if conditions stay conducive for this disease. The effects of tillage and rotation on disease establishment and development are not yet clear. It is estimated that target spot can rob 200 lbs lint/ac, though there are claims that yield loss can reach 600 lbs lint/ac.

Fig2 spore

Fig2: The target spot pathogen, Corynespora cassiicola, conidia spore.

Target spot begins on the lower leaves near the time that canopy closure occurs, which limits air movement and increases humidity. Fungicides have been observed to limit the spread of target spot within Florida cotton, however, management has been variable from year to year. Typically yield savings have varied with about 75 lbs of lint per acre being saved on average in Florida and 100 to 150 lbs of lint per acre being reported in Alabama. This number will vary depending on the susceptibility of the variety and the intensity of the disease. In farmers’ fields in Santa Rosa County, yield gains of more than 200 lbs of lint per acre were reported in 2012 and 2013. In 2014, hotter and drier weather conditions suppressed target spot development.

Fig3 close

Fig3: Magnified view of target spot lesion on cotton.

The recommendation is to begin scouting cotton as you approach canopy closure, being sure to walk into the field and look closely at lower leaves. You will not see target spot by looking at the upper canopy until it is too late. If it is observed locally, you may wish to consider a fungicide program. Being so early in the season, a timely fungicide spray may give the best chance for control and limiting yield loss. If it were later in the season, a fungicide application may not be economically justified. It is important to reiterate that fungicides do not always provide quality management of this disease, but in some locations and in some years, we have seen control with Headline (9 fl oz/ac, two applications, two weeks apart) and Twinline (7 fl oz/ac, three applications, two weeks apart). As with any fungicide application, always consult the label for further information about product application and restrictions.

For more information on this topic, please see the following resources:

Agriculture Extension Agent

UF/IFAS Cotton Publications

2015 Georgia Cotton Production Guide






Author: Michael Mulvaney – m.mulvaney@ufl.edu

Cropping Systems Specialist, University of Florida, West Florida Research and Education Center, Jay, FL

Michael Mulvaney

Permanent link to this article: http://franklin.ifas.ufl.edu/newsletters/2015/07/11/seasons-first-incidence-of-cotton-corynespora-target-spot-confirmed-in-santa-rosa-county/

Africanized Honey Bee First Responder Training May 8

first responderThe UF/IFAS Beekeeping in the Panhandle team is offering an Africanized Honey Bee Emergency Response Training on May 8, 2015 from 9:00 am – 12:30 pm Central, at the UF/IFAS Extension Washington County office, 1424 Jackson Avenue, Chipley, FL 32428.

This training is important not only because of the potential for accidents involving Africanized bees, but also for accidents involving trucks hauling 1000s of hives through the Florida Panhandle each year. Please spread the word to your local First Responder community.


• UF/IFAS Beekeeping Expert, Dr. Bill Kern has trained first responders throughout the southeast.
• Africanized bees are moving our way from south Florida
• Beekeeping is booming – thousands of hives are routinely transported through our area.

Who Should Attend:

• Fire/Rescue, Law Enforcement
• Volunteer Fire Department Personnel
• 911 Operators and Dispatchers
• Park Rangers, Brushland Firefighters, DOT
• County Emergency Management Officials
• Military Emergency Management Officials

What Will Be Taught:

• Africanized Honeybee Biology and Behavior
• Threat Triage, Personal Protective Equipment
• Rescue Tactics and Situation Outcomes.
• Field Demonstrations Using PPE and Foam-Equipped Engines

Download the printable flyer for this event: 

First Responder Training Flyer

This event is free, but please call to register:

UF/IFAS Extension Calhoun County – 850-674-8323, or
UF/IFAS Extension Washington County – 850-638-6180




Author: Judy Ludlow – judy.ludlow@ufl.edu

Judy Ludlow is the Agriculture and Natural Resource Agent in Calhoun County, Florida

Judy Ludlow

Permanent link to this article: http://franklin.ifas.ufl.edu/newsletters/2015/04/18/africanized-honey-bee-first-responder-training-may-8/

The Cow is the First Source of Calf Health

Colostrum consumption is a key factor in the long-term health of newborn calves. This calf needs to get up and nurse several times within the first four hours after birth to ensure adequate consumption.  (Alachua, Florida)

Colostrum consumption is a key factor in the long-term health of newborn calves. This calf needs to get up and nurse several times within the first four hours after birth, to ensure adequate consumption. (Alachua, Florida)

When it comes to the health of newborn calves, it all starts with the cow. The cow’s plain of nutrition and diet during gestation can affect her colostrum (first milk) production, milk yield, and the long-term health of her calf. Ensuring the cow receives sufficient nutrition during pregnancy by meeting her energy, protein, mineral, and vitamin requirements is an investment in the health of her calf.

Equally important is making sure the cow calves with a body condition score of at least 5 (neither fat nor thin).  This ensures the cow will have enough body reserves to initiate lactation, form the colostrum, and produce adequate quantities of colostrum and milk, that impact the health of calves at birth and long term. If you’re not familiar with body condition scoring your cow herd, work with your local county Extension agent to learn and implement this important management tool.

Research in cattle and sheep has demonstrated that poor dam nutrition, either under- or over-feeding, can have negative effects on the colostrum volume, and on the concentrations of important components. The importance of the quality colostrum consumption by the newborn is that colostrum is the primary means of passing immunity from the mother to the calf. The immunity comes from two sources, immunoglobulins (IG) and other proteins in colostrum.

The protein and energy supplied to the cow during pregnancy are critical for colostrum production, immunoglobulin and protein concentration, and absorption of immunoglobulins by calves. Figure 1 shows the effect of under and over-feeding dams on colostrum volume and protein concentration. Colostrum weight, volume, solids-not-fat, and protein concentration were all negatively affected by under-feeding or over-feeding the cow during gestation. Mismanagement of the mother during gestation will result in a lactation that does not support health and growth of her offspring.

Effect of a dam's nutrition during gestation on colostrum yield and composition.

Effect of a dam’s nutrition during gestation on colostrum yield and composition.

Mineral nutrition of the dam is often implicated in calf health. Cow blood status, as a predictor of calf blood mineral status at birth, is a poor predictor for copper and zinc, but the relationship is strong for selenium. However, after colostrum consumption, calf copper blood concentration can nearly double. Trace minerals are an important factor for many immunological functions and transfer through colostrum is important.

Newborn calves are born with essentially no functional immunity, so it must all come from absorption of immunoglobulin and other proteins in the colostrum. Calves need a good quality and adequate volume of colostrum as soon after birth as possible. The consumption of colostrum early in life is associated with improved survivability, disease resistance, and growth rate to weaning. There is a direct relationship between 24-hour colostrum intake of immunoglobulin-G from colostrum and serum immunoglobulin-G concentration. The more immunoglobulin rich colostrum a calf can consume, the greater the absorption and resulting serum immunoglobulin concentrations the calf will have. Circulating immunoglobulins are essential for mounting an immune response to disease in the calf.

Optimal absorption of immunoglobulins and immunity related proteins occurs at 4 hours after birth and begins to decline starting around 12 hours, ending around 24 hours after birth. If the dam doesn’t produce enough colostrum, or the calf is unable to consume an adequate amount of colostrum then a commercial colostrum replacer may be warranted. Make sure to use colostrum replacer and not a colostrum supplement. The concentrations of immunoglobulin and other components are not adequate in the supplement compared to a colostrum replacer product.

The calf’s long-term health is directly impacted by cow gestational nutrition. Adequate consumption of quality colostrum is the first step in calf immunity and long-term health. Be diligent to ensure calves receive colostrum because poor calf health will negatively affect the cow-calf producer’s bottom line.


For more information on this topic, download:  Feeding Colostrum to Beef Calves

For more information on this and other topics related to beef cattle nutrition, please see the following list of UF/IFAS Publications here: Beef Cattle Nutrition



Author: hersom – hersom@ufl.edu


Permanent link to this article: http://franklin.ifas.ufl.edu/newsletters/2015/03/07/the-cow-is-the-first-source-of-calf-health/

UF/IFAS Leon County Extension is Among First Three Commercial “Zero Net Energy” Buildings in Florida!

The old adage, “You can’t teach an old dog new tricks” does not always apply. During a recent national webinar, research staff at the New Buildings Institute (NBI) headquartered in Vancouver, Washington profiled the University of Florida IFAS Leon County Extension building as a case study. This project proves that older office buildings can be successfully renovated to achieve next-generation performance standards, of which the “Holy Grail” is “Zero Net Energy” (ZNE). ZNE buildings are ultra-energy-efficient structures that produce at least as much energy on site as they consume over the course of a year.

With this achievement, the Leon County Board of County Commissioners has joined an elite leadership group of nationally recognized institutions that have implemented energy-efficient technologies and practices in the design, construction or retrofit, and operation of green buildings. The Board’s Extension Center joins a prestigious list of Zero Net Energy buildings. Similar sized recognized buildings include:  Oberlin College Lewis Center in Oberlin, OH (built 2000); the Aldo Leopold Legacy Center in Baraboo, WI (2007); and the Leslie Shao-Ming Sun Field Station in Woodside, CA (2002).

A new solar array covers the employee parking area providing electricity for the Extension Office. This is one of the energy retrofits that has gained national sustainability recognition. Photo provided by Leon County.

There are now 32 “ZNE Verified” buildings nationwide and one “ZNE Verified” district. Two of the ZNE Verified buildings are in Florida, and the one ZNE Verified district is, too; it’s the Anna Maria Historic Green Village. The other ZNE building in Florida is the TD Bank Branch – Ft Lauderdale. Both of these became ZNE Verified during the 2012 operating year, and announced in NBI’s 2013 Research Report.

Average Energy Use Index (EUI) for all 33 ZNE Verified building projects is 21. EUI is NBI’s measure of all energy BTUs (electric and gas) used to power the building. The Leon County Extension building is more energy-efficient than the nationwide average among ZNE Verified buildings, with an EUI of 19. For our square footage, the EUI that most closely matches ours is the Aldo Leopold Center’s. It has an EUI of 16, which is more than offset by its renewable energy generation of EUI 18.

UF/IFAS Leon County Extension OfficeThe Leon County Extension building was built in 1961, renovated in 2000, and retrofitted in 2012 – with T8 lighting, solar PV and closed-loop geothermal HVAC (ground-source heat pumps). The energy system upgrades were funded by a federal energy grant and local tax dollars from the Leon County Board of County Commissioners. These upgrades complemented an underground cistern system designed and installed by staff of County Facilities Management and Public Works in 2010-2011. The four-tank, 40,000-gallon, on-site rainwater harvesting and storage system is used for irrigation of demonstration ornamental and vegetable gardens.

Combined, the water and energy conservation system retrofits have transformed the Extension Center into Leon County government’s “Sustainable Building Demonstration,” which was a vision and goal of the Board of County Commissioners and their County Sustainability Coordinator. Their vision enabled a partnership with the building occupants (University of Florida Extension faculty) and citizen advisory committee members to develop the retrofit plans, and to work with Facilities Management to operate the building efficiently.

Our 52-year-old Tallahassee building – plus 7 of the other 32 ZNE Verified projects – were renovations, not new construction. The average (EUI) of the entire renovation group nationwide was not significantly different from that of new buildings constructed with ZNE goals driving the design and engineering process from the ground up, even though new construction gives more opportunity to incorporate the latest technology in the building envelope. NBI hopes that this very important finding provides motivation for a new focus on the opportunity to successfully renovate existing buildings to meet ZNE status, starting with government agencies, academic institutions and corporations.

To learn more visit our office and project information center located at 615 Paul Russell Rd. in Tallahassee, Florida. You may also call the office for details and to arrange a group tour. 850-606-5200.

Visit our real-time eGauge dashboard with calculated energy consumption, production, and savings.

Leon County Sustainable Resource Center (2)

Real time dashboard with summarized energy production, consumption, and savings. Photo Courtesy of eGauge.











Author: sheftall – sheftall@ufl.edu

Wiliam (Will) Sheftall is the Natural Resources Extension Agent for Leon County


Permanent link to this article: http://franklin.ifas.ufl.edu/newsletters/2014/01/18/ufifas-leon-county-extension-is-among-first-three-commercial-zero-net-energy-buildings-in-florida/

Kudzu Bug Makes First Appearance in Wakulla County

Kudzu Bug Makes First Appearance in Wakulla County

Kudzu bugs, with a taste for legumes, cotton and citrus, have made their first appearance in Wakulla County.

Kudzu bugs, with a taste for legumes, cotton and citrus, have made their first appearance in Wakulla County.

The Kudzu Bug also known as the bean plataspid (Megacopta cribraria, Fabricius), was discovered in the Sopchoppy area of western Wakulla County last week populating a citrus tree.  Kudzu bugs are native to East Asia and were first detected in northeastern Georgia in October 2009.

They have quickly established reproducing populations and have spread throughout Georgia, South Carolina and North Carolina, and moved into Alabama, Tennessee, Florida, Mississippi and Virginia.

These pests are excellent hitchhikers which will cling to people and vehicles moving through an infested area. They are also good fliers and can travel long distances.

While there is a family resemblance with its squared tail and blunt dome shaped head, Kudzu bugs are not­ beetles. They are a nuisance stink bugs which secrete a foul odor and are capable of staining a variety of surfaces.

As the name suggest they will dine on kudzu, but will also move into other crops such as soybeans, green beans and other legumes. There is serious concern these exotic pest will be one more recently imported impediment to production soybeans and and other legumes in the Big Bend Region.

Much like stinkbugs, adults will excrete an odor as a defense mechanism when disturbed. In its native habitat, there are up to three generations of these pests per year. In the warmer latitudes of north Florida the reproduction rate may exceed the recorded rate in Asia.

Any pyrethroid based insecticide applied directly to the bugs can kill them. However, the bug’s mobility and their overwhelming numbers make them difficult to control.

To learn more about kudzu bugs, contact your local Extension Office, read a brief summary in the UF/IFAS publication: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/in939, or go to the official Kudzu Bug Website   that was developed by a working group of Research and Extension Faculty from across the Southeast.  Their site provides the latest recommendations for control of Kudzu Bugs.

Adult kudzu bug on a human thumb.

Adult kudzu bug on a human thumb.


Author: Les Harrison – harrisog@ufl.edu

Les Harrison is the UF/IFAS Wakulla County Extension Director. He began his work in the Northwest Extension District as the Sustainable Agriculture and Extension Technology Agent in Leon County on August 25, 2006. His career in agriculture extends back over thirty five years and includes work in business, government and academic positions. Prior to working with the Extension Service, he spent 16 years with the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services in the Division of Marketing and Development. He worked in four of the division’s six bureaus. He has also managed farm supply cooperatives in Alabama and Virginia with annual sales over four million dollars, worked for an international grain company, and was a research associate for Auburn University’s Agricultural Economics Department. He has a Master’s of Science Degree in Agricultural Economics from Auburn University and a Bachelor of Science Degree in Journalism from the University of Florida. He is the author of over 400 publications and has written professionally for print and broadcast media.

Les Harrison

Permanent link to this article: http://franklin.ifas.ufl.edu/newsletters/2013/05/10/kudzu-bug-makes-first-appearance-in-wakulla-county/

Soil Test First!


Matthew Orwat, Horticulture Agent I, Washington County Extension

Last week’s warm spring-like weather has reminded producers that it is time to prepare this year’s fertility  management plan. This reminder is timely because there is still time to prepare for the growing season ahead. Before producers add fertilize or lime, however, it is vital to understand the condition of the soil.

One of the easiest methods to assess the condition of a production area’s soil is to obtain a soil test. Soil tests effectively determine the pH and nutrient levels of the soil in a given area.  It is essential that the test be collected correctly so that it accurately reflects the nutrient levels in the production area.  All that is needed to take an accurate soil sample is shovel or soil probe, and a plastic bucket. Metal buckets will contaminate soil sample results, so a plastic bucket is an absolute requirement.  To collect your soil sample, follow these guidelines:

  1. Identify the production area(s) to be sampled. Use one soil sample bag for each area.  Uncharacteristic or problem areas (such as depressions, etc.) within the production area should be sampled separately. 
  2. Using a shovel (or soil probe), remove soil from a number of locations within the production area. The more soil collected from the sample area, the more accurate the results will be.  Soil should be removed from the top 6 inches.
  3. Discard any plant material (such as leaves or roots) and deposit the soil into the plastic bucket. When you are done collecting soil, mix all the soil in the bucket to ensure it is well blended.  You will have much more soil than you need to fill the sample bag, but a well-mixed representative sample is important for good results.
  4. Spread the soil from the bucket onto newspaper and allow it to dry thoroughly. This may take up to 24 hours.  A dry sample is very important because moisture may affect the results.
  5. Once dry, pack approximately 1 pint of soil into the soil sample bag (filled to the dotted line) These bags are available free from your county Extension office..  

The best soil test value is the $ 7.00 soil test which includes analysis of phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg) in addition to soil pH and liming requirement. The proper form should be filled out and mailed to the University of Florida with the soil sample and payment.  Results will usually be sent back within 1-2 weeks.   Click here to view a sample soil test report.

The soil sample report will include lime and fertilizer requirements. Remember that the recommended fertilization rates in the report are in pounds of nutrient, not pounds of fertilizer. For example, if it is recommended that the producer apply 50 pounds of nitrogen per acre and their fertilizer analysis is 10-10-10, they would need to apply 500 pounds of fertilizer. This is because 10-10-10 fertilizer contains 10% nitrogen.

For more information, consult your local county extension office, visit the UF/IFAS Extension Soil Testing Laboratory website, or the UF/IFAS publication Standardized Fertilization Recommendations for Agronomic Crops.




Author: Matthew Orwat

Matthew J. Orwat started his career with UF / IFAS in 2011 and is the Horticulture Extension Agent for Washington County Florida. His goal is to provide educational programming to meet the diverse needs of and provide solutions for homeowners and small farmers with ornamental, turf, fruit and vegetable gardening objectives. Please feel free to contact him with any questions you may have.

Matthew Orwat

Permanent link to this article: http://franklin.ifas.ufl.edu/newsletters/2013/01/18/soil-test-first/

Southern Armyworm Makes First Appearance of 2012 in Wakulla County

Southern Armyworms have make their presence known in Wakulla County by consuming one gardeners efforts.

Southern Armyworms, Spodoptera eridania, has made its first appearance of 2012 in Wakulla County on April 19.  A home gardener brought in the samples seen in the photograph above.

While most were still in the larva stage, the gardener had experience substantial damage to his tomato and potato plants.  It is suspected the eggs overwintered in nearby Polkweed, a favored host plant for these pests.

Southern armyworm is best controlled with foliar insecticides when larvae are small. Insecticides vary considerably in their toxicity to larvae, making it difficult to control with botanical insecticides.

This gardener, who follows organic protocols, will be treating with Diatamacious Earth (DE) and Dipel.

For more information refer to the “Southern Armyworm” at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/in263 or contact your local Extension Office.

Panhandle Agriculture

Permanent link to this article: http://franklin.ifas.ufl.edu/newsletters/2012/04/20/southern-armyworm-makes-first-appearance-of-2012-in-wakulla-county/