Tag Archive: Species

Invasive Exotic Species and Control Workshop – September 28

Invasive Exotic Species and Control Workshop – September 28

The Six Rivers Cooperative Invasive Species Management Area (CISMA) group and the Florida Forest Stewardship Program will offer an Invasive Exotic Species and Control Workshop on September 28, 2017; 9:00 am to 3:00 pm Central. This one day workshop will be held at the UF/IFAS Okaloosa County Extension Office, 3098 Airport Rd, Crestview, Florida 32539.  You are invited to learn about identifying and controlling some of the most troublesome invasive exotic plants like cogongrass, Japanese climbing fern, privet and others. We’ll also address exotic insects that are causing, or will cause big headaches for forestry and natural resource professionals. Earn pesticide applicator CEUs and forestry CFEs and connect with partnership and assistance opportunities!

Cost is $ 10 per person, lunch and materials included. You can register online through the Eventbrite Registration site. You can also reserve a space by contacting UF/IFAS Okaloosa County Extension at (850) 689-5850 and pay at the event with cash or check, made  payable to the University of Florida. Approved for 4.0 Category 1 SAF CFEs. FDACS pesticide CEUs are still pending approval.

Cogongrass will take over native or cultivated vegetation, as can bee seen in this hay field. Photo credit: Doug Mayo

 

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Author: Libbie Johnson – libbiej@ufl.edu

Agriculture agent at UF IFAS Escambia County Extension.
http://escambia.ifas.ufl.edu/

Libbie Johnson

Permanent link to this article: http://franklin.ifas.ufl.edu/newsletters/2017/08/25/invasive-exotic-species-and-control-workshop-september-28/

Invasive Exotic Species and Control Workshop

Invasive Exotic Species and Control Workshop

Join us to learn about identifying and controlling some of the most troublesome invasive exotic plants like cogongrass, Japanese climbing fern, privet, and others.  We will also address exotic insects that are causing, or will cause, big headaches for forestry and natural resource professionals.  Earn pesticide applicator CEU’s, forestry CEU’s and connect with partnership and assistance opportunities.

 

Presented by the Six Rivers CISMA and the Florida Forest Stewardship

September 28, 2017

9:00 – 3:00 CDT

Okaloosa County Extension Office

3098 Airport Rd.

Crestview FL 32539-7124

invasive_species17_six_rivers_announcement

Registration:

Japanese Climbing Fern can quickly cover natural vegetation. Spores and small plants can be potentially transported in pine straw. Climbing ferns are a problem for managed timber and home landscapes. Photo by L. Scott Jackson

$ 10 per person; lunch and materials included

http://fsp-workshop092817.eventbrite.com/

Or, call Okaloosa County Extension at (850) 689-5850

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Author: Rick O’Connor – roc1@ufl.edu

Sea Grant Extension Agent in Escambia County

Rick O’Connor

Permanent link to this article: http://franklin.ifas.ufl.edu/newsletters/2017/08/18/invasive-exotic-species-and-control-workshop/

NISAW 2017: National Invasive Species Awareness Week

Aliens are invading our forests, pastures, fields and lawns. Well, okay, not aliens but invasive species are invading our beautiful landscapes.  Invasive species are non-native or exotic species that do not naturally occur in an area, cause economic or environmental harm, or negatively impact human health.  These invasive species have become the number one threat to biodiversity on protected lands.  However, invasive species do not know boundaries, and as a result, public, private lands, natural and man-made water bodies, and associated watersheds are affected.   National Invasive Species Awareness Week (NISAW) is February 27-March 3, 2017.

It is estimated that Florida Agriculture loses $ 179 million annually from invasive pests (http://www.defenders.org/sites/default/files/publications/florida.pdf). Generally, eradication of an invasive species is difficult and expensive.  Most of the mitigation efforts focus on control rather than eradication.

EDDMaps (Early Detection and Distribution Mapping System), a web-based mapping system for reporting invasive species, currently has 667 different invasive plants reported in Florida. Many invasive insects, animals and diseases have also landed in Florida.  Some famous invasive species in Florida include cogongrass, wild hogs, red imported fire ants, Chinese tallow, and lionfish.

For National Invasive Species Awareness Week, the University of Florida IFAS Northwest Extension District will highlight new invasive species each day. There are a couple of ways to receive this information during NISAW:

You can help us control invasive species in several ways. First, always be cautious when bringing plants or plant materials into the state.  Plants or even dead plant material can harbor weeds, insects and diseases that can become invasive in our state.  Second, when you see something suspicious, contact your local extension agent for help identifying the weed, insect or disease.  Third, you can volunteer your time and effort.  Invasive species control is difficult and requires a cooperative effort for funding and manpower.  The state has several Cooperative Invasive Species Management Areas (CISMA) in which public and private organizations work together to control invasive species in their area.  These CISMAs hold work days in which volunteers can help remove invasive species from the environment.

For more information about NISAW or invasive species, contact your local county extension agent.

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Author: Jennifer Bearden – bearden@ufl.edu

Agriculture Agent Okaloosa County

Jennifer Bearden

Permanent link to this article: http://franklin.ifas.ufl.edu/newsletters/2017/02/27/nisaw-2017-national-invasive-species-awareness-week/

February 21-27 Invasive Species Awareness Week

February 21-27 Invasive Species Awareness Week

Cogongrass flowering in Crestview in February.  Photo by Jennifer Bearden

Cogongrass flowering in Crestview in February. Photo by Jennifer Bearden

National Invasive Species Awareness Week (NISAW) is February 21-27, 2016.  This week is dedicated to focusing the nation on the impacts of Invasive species.  Non-native, exotic, invasive species do not naturally occur in an area.  They cause economic and environmental harm, and can negatively impact human health. These invasive species have become the number one threat to biodiversity on protected lands.  However, invasive species do not respect boundaries, and as a result, public lands, private lands, natural and man-made water bodies, and associated wetlands and watersheds are all affected.

It is estimated that Florida Agriculture loses $ 179 million annually from invasive pests (http://www.defenders.org/sites/default/files/publications/florida.pdf). Generally, eradication of an invasive species is difficult and expensive.  Most of the mitigation efforts focus on maintenance control rather than eradication.

EDDMaps (Early Detection and Distribution Mapping System), a web-based mapping system for reporting invasive species, currently has 667 different invasive plants reported in Florida. Many invasive insects, animals and diseases have also landed in Florida.  Some famous invasive species in Florida include cogongrass, wild hogs, red imported fire ants, Chinese tallow, and lionfish.

For National Invasive Species Awareness Week, the University of Florida IFAS Northwest Extension District will highlight two invasive species each day. There are a couple of ways to receive this information every day of NISAW:

You can help control invasive species in several ways. First, always be cautious when bringing plants or plant materials into the state.  Plants or even dead plant material can harbor weeds, insects, and diseases that can become invasive in our state.  Second, when you see something suspicious, contact your local extension agent for help identifying the weed, insect, or disease.  Third, you can volunteer your time and effort.  Invasive species control is difficult and requires a cooperative effort for funding and manpower.  The state has several Cooperative Invasive Species Management Areas (CISMA) in which public and private organizations work together to control invasive species in their area.  These CISMAs hold work days in which volunteers can help remove invasive species from the environment.

For more information about NISAW or invasive species, contact your local county extension agent or explore the following online resources:

 

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Author: Jennifer Bearden – bearden@ufl.edu

Agriculture Agent Okaloosa County

Jennifer Bearden

Permanent link to this article: http://franklin.ifas.ufl.edu/newsletters/2016/02/12/february-21-27-invasive-species-awareness-week/

National Invasive Species Awareness Week 2016

National Invasive Species Awareness Week 2016

NISAW 2016Invasive species are non-native or exotic species that do not naturally occur in an area, cause economic or environmental harm, or negatively impact human health. These invasive species have become the number one threat to biodiversity on protected lands.  However, invasive species do not know boundaries, and as a result, public, private lands, natural and man-made water bodies, and associated watersheds are affected.   National Invasive Species Awareness Week (NISAW) is February 21-27, 2016.

It is estimated that Florida Agriculture loses $ 179 million annually from invasive pests (http://www.defenders.org/sites/default/files/publications/florida.pdf). Generally, eradication of an invasive species is difficult and expensive.  Most of the mitigation efforts focus on control rather than eradication.

EDDMaps (Early Detection and Distribution Mapping System), a web-based mapping system for reporting invasive species, currently has 667 different invasive plants reported in Florida. Many invasive insects, animals and diseases have also landed in Florida.  Some famous invasive species in Florida include cogongrass, wild hogs, red imported fire ants, Chinese tallow, and lionfish.

For National Invasive Species Awareness Week, the University of Florida IFAS Northwest Extension District will highlight two invasive species each day. There are a couple of ways to receive this information each day of NISAW:

You can help us control invasive species in several ways. First, always be cautious when bringing plants or plant materials into the state.  Plants or even dead plant material can harbor weeds, insects and diseases that can become invasive in our state.  Second, when you see something suspicious, contact your local extension agent for help identifying the weed, insect or disease.  Third, you can volunteer your time and effort.  Invasive species control is difficult and requires a cooperative effort for funding and manpower.  The state has several Cooperative Invasive Species Management Areas (CISMA) in which public and private organizations work together to control invasive species in their area.  These CISMAs hold work days in which volunteers can help remove invasive species from the environment.

For more information about NISAW or invasive species, contact your local county extension agent.

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Author: Jennifer Bearden – bearden@ufl.edu

Agriculture Agent Okaloosa County

Jennifer Bearden

Permanent link to this article: http://franklin.ifas.ufl.edu/newsletters/2016/02/12/national-invasive-species-awareness-week-2016/

Panhandle Invasive Species Workshop Thursday October 15th

Panhandle Invasive Species Workshop Thursday October 15th

invasive

 

CLICK HERE TO REGISTER ONLINE

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Author: Matthew Orwat – mjorwat@ufl.edu

Matthew J. Orwat started his career with UF / IFAS in 2011 and is the Horticulture Extension Agent for Washington County Florida. His goal is to provide educational programming to meet the diverse needs of and provide solutions for homeowners and small farmers with ornamental, turf, fruit and vegetable gardening objectives. Please feel free to contact him with any questions you may have.
http://washington.ifas.ufl.edu/lng/about/

Matthew Orwat

Permanent link to this article: http://franklin.ifas.ufl.edu/newsletters/2015/10/03/panhandle-invasive-species-workshop-thursday-october-15th/

Protecting Precious Species From Pesticides

Protecting Precious Species From Pesticides

Two-Headed-Frog-32476

There are more than 100 species of plants and animals living in Florida that are in danger of extinction.  These trees, flowers, reptiles, amphibians, birds, fish, mammals and invertebrates are listed as either threatened, endangered or species of special concern.  As stewards of the land we must question, “What could the loss of a torreya tree, a lupine, a salamander, a butterfly, a woodstork, a right whale, a manatee, a sea turtle or a black bear do to our environment and our quality of life?”bear closeup

Biological diversity is the variety and variability of species present in an ecosystem including the complex interactions of the many species.  Regardless of their size or apparent significance, each species has a role in the circle of life and the food web.  Preservation of all species is important.  No one knows which ones hold the answers to the future of human existence on this planet.

Many significant developments in medicine have come from obscure plant and animal species.  Modern day research includes a vaccine against leprosy being developed because of the nine-banded armadillo and horseshoe crabs being used in developing laboratory tests and finding remedies for several bacterial diseases.  In agriculture, genes from wild species may provide the resistance for plant diseases, insects or even weather extremes that could save us from crop failure or possible starvation.  There is an interdependence among living things.  The extinction of one species may have a domino-like effect on other species.  Stability of an ecosystem depends on bio-diversity.

To protect our future and the future of wildlife, the Endangered Species Act became federal law in 1976.  This act is intended to protect and promote recovery of plants and animals that are in danger of becoming extinct as a result of human activity.  The Environmental Protection Agency is responsible for ensuring the endangered species are protected from pesticides.

Pesticides can kill endangered plants and animals directly or indirectly. Birds mistaking them for food may eat granules, baits or treated seeds.  Water contaminated with pesticides ranging in concentrations of less than 0.1 to 1.0 parts per million (ppm) can kill fish.  Animals that eat treated crops, drink or wade in contaminated water or feed on tainted prey can be killed indirectly.  Some pesticides can build up to lethal levels as predators consume multiple poisoned prey species.backpack spraying

There are certain things you can do to lessen the harmful effects of pesticides on fish and wildlife.  Read all pesticide labels carefully to find out whether the use of the product requires special steps to protect endangered species.  Determine if the site is designated as the current habitat of an endangered species.  Find out this information by visiting http://www.epa.gov/espp/ and http://myfwc.com.  When you have a choice of pesticides to use, choose one that is less or non-toxic to fish and wildlife.  Read and follow the “Environmental Hazards” section and use the special precautions and measures to minimize harmful effects.  Treat only the areas that need to be treated.  Leave a buffer zone (untreated area) between bodies of water and treated areas.  It is your legal and moral responsibility to protect endangered species by careful use of pesticides in and around their key habitat areas.

 

Information for this article was derived from University of Florida publications “Pesticide Effects on Nontarget Organisms” by Frederick Fishel and “Applying Pesticides Correctly” by Thomas Dean and Norman Nesheim.

 

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Author: Sheila Dunning – sdunning@ufl.edu


http://okaloosa.ifas.ufl.edu

Sheila Dunning

Permanent link to this article: http://franklin.ifas.ufl.edu/newsletters/2015/07/08/protecting-precious-species-from-pesticides/

Invasive Species of the Day: Cogongrass and Tawny Crazy Ant

Invasive Species of the Day: Cogongrass and	Tawny Crazy Ant

NISAW-logo09[1]

Cogongrass (Imperata Cylindrica):

Cogongrass Photo Credit: Chris Evans, Illionois Wildlife Action Plan, www.bugwood.org

Cogongrass Photo Credit: Chris Evans, Illionois Wildlife Action Plan, www.bugwood.org

Cogongrass is one of the 10 worst weeds in the world.  This grass is an aggressive grower and forms colonies causing loss of productive forest areas, severe degradation of habitat, and economic issues.  Since its introduction in the 1900s, Cogongrass has spread to most of the counties in Florida.  Reproduction occurs through seed production and the creeping rhizome system.  This plant is prolific once established with the creation of a very dense rhizome system that retains water and releasing of allelopathic chemicals reducing competition from other plants.

Cogongrass is yellow/green in color with an off-set midrib and a fluffy white seed head. Cogongrass is drought and shade tolerant. Once this grass invades, it will quickly displace the native species and requires frequent and intensive controls.

Early detection is best since a small infestation is easier and cheaper to treat. The larger infestations become more time intensive, expensive, and difficult. There are treatment options for these infestations, make sure that specific instructions are followed and treatment is repeated.

For more information on the biology of this plant and various treatment options visit http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/wg202. Also, by contacting your local UF/IFAS Extension office for assistance and information.

 

Cogongrass is a fire-adapted species, thriving where fire is a regular occurrence. In fact, the threat of wildfires greatly increases with the presence of cogongrass, a non-native invasive species. Cogongrass fires burn hotter and faster than native grass fires. This footage, shot in Baldwin County, Alabama, demonstrates how destructive a cogongrass fire can be to native vegetation.

Tawny Crazy Ant (Nylanderia  fulva):

Cleaning up large piles of dead ants are a daily cleanup chore for this homeowner. Photo: Dan Culbert, UF/IFAS Extension Okeechobee County

Cleaning up large piles of dead ants are a daily cleanup chore for this homeowner. Photo: Dan Culbert, UF/IFAS Extension Okeechobee County

Nylanderia fulva is part of the group of ants called “crazy ants” due to their erratic and quick movements.  These ants are medium to small and goldish brown to reddish brown in color.  The Tawny Crazy Ants nest in large numbers in leaf litter, soil, rotten logs, under potted plants and along underground electrical conduits.

Nylanderia fulva is a nuisance to humans.  They infest gardens, sidewalks and other areas of human traffic.  They cause damage to electrical lines.  They also displace other native ant species due to their large colony size.

This ant, Nylanderia fulva, has been confused with several other ants such as the Nylanderia pubens and Nylanderia guatemalensis.

Controlling the bug population in your garden and around your home will help decrease the likelihood of Tawny Crazy Ants invading.  Avoid transporting plant material, mulches and such to uninfested areas.  Granular baits can be used to control smaller populations but large populations will probably need a professional pest control service.

The Tawny Crazy Ant was a Featured Creature by UF/IFAS Entomology and Nematology.  Also, the UF/IFAS School IPM has some good information about controlling Tawny Crazy Ant.

Download a Coloring and Activity Book at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/IN/IN94200.pdf

Download a Coloring and Activity Book at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/IN/IN94200.pdf

For more information, contact the author Jennifer Bearden, UF/IFAS Extension Okaloosa County Agriculture Agent 850-689-5850

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Author: Jennifer Bearden – bearden@ufl.edu

Agriculture Agent Okaloosa County

Jennifer Bearden

Permanent link to this article: http://franklin.ifas.ufl.edu/newsletters/2015/03/01/invasive-species-of-the-day-cogongrass-and-tawny-crazy-ant/

Invasive Species of the Day: Cuban Tree Frog and Hydrilla

Invasive Species of the Day: Cuban Tree Frog and Hydrilla

NISAW-logo09[1]

Cuban Treefrog (Osteopilus septentrionalis):

Image by Dr. Steve A Johnson 2005.

Image by Dr. Steve A Johnson 2005.

The Cuban Treefrog: was introduced into Florida as a stowaway on vehicles and plants in the 1920’s. As of 2013, breeding populations have been recorded as far north as Georgia. Cuban Treefrogs have larger toepads and eyes than any of the native species. Being larger in size, the Cuban Treefrog out-competes other treefrogs for resources, to the point that they are predators of Florida’s treefrogs and inhibitors of native tadpoles.

Juvenile Cuban Treefrogs can be distinguished from natives by their red eyes and hind legs with blue bones. Three-foot-long sections of 1.5 inch diameter PVC pipe can be placed in the landscape to monitor for treefrog species. Should Cubans be found, they should be reported and euthanized. For additional details visit: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/uw259.

Would you like to be a Citizen Scientist?  You can help Dr. Steve Johnson at the University of Florida Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation by reporting suspected Cuban Treefrog sightings.  For more information on how you can become a Citizen Scientist, visit The Cuban Treefrog Citizen Scientist Project.

For more information contact the author Sheila Dunning, UF/IFAS Extension Okaloosa County Commercial Horticulture Agent 850-689-5850.

Hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata):

Hydrilla is a perennial submerged plant that grows in dense mats up to the surface of freshwater habitats, including ponds, lakes, springs, and rivers. Growing at the rapid rate of an inch a day and up to 25 feet long, hydrilla shades out beneficial native plants and clogs waterways, preventing flood control, boating, and fishing. In dense populations, the plant can alter oxygen levels and water chemistry and survive in a wide variety of nutrient conditions, sunlight availability, and temperatures.

Hydrilla Photo Credit: Vic Ramey, UF

Hydrilla Photo Credit: Vic Ramey, UF/IFAS Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants.

Originating in Asia, it was introduced to Florida (likely through Tampa and Miami) in the 1950’s as part of the worldwide aquarium trade. Hydrilla has become a very expensive problem for the state. Millions are spent annually on chemical and mechanical treatment simply to maintain the plant. Adding to the problem is the fact that it is still available commercially, even though it has been placed on the US Federal Noxious Weed List. In the United States, the plant is found as far north as Connecticut and west to California and Washington.

Methods of control include mechanical harvesters and chopping machines (although fragments of hydrilla left in the water can regrow), introduced insects and fish (particularly the Chinese grass carp), aquatic herbicides, and lake drawdowns. Hydrilla is often transported from one body of water to the other by unknowing boaters moving fragments of the plant left on boats, trailers, or live wells, so learning to identify the plant and cleaning boats before leaving the ramp are helpful in prevention. Visit the Extension Hydrilla IPM site for more helpful tips.

For more information contact the author Carrie Stevenson, UF/IFAS Extension Escambia County Coastal Sustainability Agent at 850-475-5230.

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Author: Carrie Stevenson – ctsteven@ufl.edu

Coastal Sustainability Agent, Escambia County Extension

Carrie Stevenson

Permanent link to this article: http://franklin.ifas.ufl.edu/newsletters/2015/02/28/invasive-species-of-the-day-cuban-tree-frog-and-hydrilla/

Invasive Species of the Day: Tiger Prawn and Climbing Ferns

Invasive Species of the Day: Tiger Prawn and Climbing Ferns

NISAW-logo09[1]

Giant Tiger Prawn (Penaeus monodon):

Giant Tiger Prawn: This large shrimp, also known as the Asian Tiger Shrimp and the Black Tiger Shrimp, can reach lengths between 8-12 inches.  It resembles are native edible penaeid shrimp but differs in that it has distinct black and yellow stripes. It was brought to the U.S. from the Indo-Pacific region as an aquaculture product.  There was an accidental release of 2,000 animals from a South Carolina farm in 1988.

The nonnative Giant Tiger Prawn - also known as the Black Tiger Shrimp. Photo by David Knott, Bugwood.org

The nonnative Giant Tiger Prawn – also known as the Black Tiger Shrimp. Photo by David Knott, Bugwood.org

Reports of this shrimp in the wild have increased over time.  They have been found in all Gulf coast states and there has been at least 1 record in each of the Florida Panhandle counties.

The impact of this shrimp to our area is still unknown but they have a high tolerance for salinity change and consume many types of benthic invertebrates.  It is thought that they could become serious competition for our native penaeid shrimp and could possible transmit diseases.

If you think you have found one of these shrimp, record size location (GPS preferred), and email information to ExoticReports@MyFWC.com.  To learn more about this species view the USGS factsheet.

For more information contact the author Rick O’Connor, UF/IFAS Escambia County Extension – Sea Grant and Marine Science Extension Agent, 850-475-5230.

Climbing Ferns (Lygodium japonicum and Lygodium microphyllum):

Japanese Climbing Fern (Lygodium japonicum) and Old World Climbing Ferns (Lygodium microphyllum): are presently the only non-native invasive ferns in Florida.  Both ferns reproduce and spread readily by wind-blown spores. A single fertile leaflet can produce 28,600 spores.  Animals, equipment, and even people that move through an area with climbing ferns are very likely to pick up spores and move them to other locations on the property or even to other properties.

Japanese Climbing Fern Lygodium japonicum photo by Chris Evans, Illinois Wildlife Action Plan, Bugwood.org

Japanese climbing fern is a delicate looking perennial climbing vine.  It is capable of forming a dense mat-like thatch capable of covering trees and shrubs. Initially, it was introduced from Japan as an ornamental. It is scattered throughout the lower portions of Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, South Carolina, and south into central Florida. Further planting or cultivation of this vine is prohibited by the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services.  It climbs very quickly to the crowns of pine trees, which can move fire into the growth points during controlled burns, making it a concern on forested lands.

Old World climbing fern has been a problem for many years in central and south Florida but it is currently moving north. The first plant was documented in 1958 by a nursery in Delray Beach.  By 1965, it was found in natural areas of Marion County.  The northern edge of its advance by 2012 was Hernando County on the Gulf side and Duval County on the Atlantic coast.

Adequate control of both climbing ferns has been achieved with multiple applications of glyphosate and/or metsulfuron. Other herbicides, such as triclopyr and imazapic have also been used to
control Japanese climbing fern.  However, when the plant is growing in areas adjacent to wetlands or water, fewer herbicides are registered for those sites.  Hand digging is also an option, except when the fern is producing spore covered leaflets.  Disturbing it then would propagate more plants.

Old World Climbing Fern has moved northward from South Florida into Central Florida. Photo by Peggy Greb, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Bugwood.org

Old World Climbing Fern has moved northward from South Florida into Central Florida. Photo by Peggy Greb, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Bugwood.org

As with most invasive plants, repeated and correctly timed treatments are likely to be necessary. For more information about climbing ferns contact your local UF/IFAS Extension Office and read the following publications: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fr133 and http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ag122

For more information contact Les Harrison, UF/IFAS Extension Wakulla County – Agriculture & Natural Resources Extension Agent by phone at 850-926-3931.

 

 

 

 

 

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Author: Scott Jackson – lsj@ufl.edu

UF/IFAS Bay County Extension Florida Sea Grant Regional Specialized Agent (Artificial Reefs and Fisheries)
http://bay.ifas.ufl.edu

Scott Jackson

Permanent link to this article: http://franklin.ifas.ufl.edu/newsletters/2015/02/27/invasive-species-of-the-day-tiger-prawn-and-climbing-ferns/

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