Tag Archive: Weed

Weed of the Week: Coffee Senna

Weed of the Week: Coffee Senna

Coffee senna is a troublesome pasture weed that is toxic to livestock. Photo credit: Doug Mayo

Coffee Senna is not only an issue for livestock producers, as seeds are toxic when consumed, it also causes issues for cotton and peanut farmers in the southern states. The scientific name Senna occidentalis comes from Arabic and Latin roots, with Senna meaning “these plants” and occidentalis meaning “western,” in reference to its origin. While closely related to Sicklepod, Coffee Senna does not respond the same to many of the herbicides used for Sicklepod control in row crop production, making it challenging to control.

 

For help to identify weeds or to develop a control plan for your operation, please contact your county extension agent. 

For more information on this topic please see the following UF/IFAS Publication:

Weed Management in Pastures and Rangeland—2017

 

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Author: Kalyn Waters – kalyn.waters@ufl.edu

Holmes County Extension Director working in the areas of Agricultural Management in row crop, natural resources, livestock and forage production. Specialized in Beef Cattle Production in the area of reproductive, nutritional and finical management.
http://holmes.ufl.ifas.edu

Kalyn Waters

Permanent link to this article: http://franklin.ifas.ufl.edu/newsletters/2017/09/16/weed-of-the-week-coffee-senna/

Weed Spotlight: Chamberbitter, the “Little Mimosa”

Summer annual weeds are taking their last stand against Panhandle lawns before fall arrives. Rain and humid temperatures of late have boosted their growth spurts. Chamberbitter is a prime example.

Chamberbitter (Phyllanthus urinaria) is found as north as Illinois and as west as Texas, but thrives in lower southeastern states. It’s a headache for homeowners as well as pasture managers. This is an annual broadleaf weed that emerges in summer months. The foliage resembles that of the mimosa tree (Albizia julibrissin) and can be confused with the native mimosa groundcover, known as powderpuff mimosa (Mimosa strigillosa). This plant grows upright and develops a long taproot. Wart-like seeds can be found on the underside of the branch.

Figure 1: Chamberbitter, a common annual weed.

Credit: Mary Derrick, UF/IFAS Extension Santa Rosa County.

To control Chamberbitter in a lawn, one must not allow the seed to disperse. This plant germinates in warm soil temperatures. Therefore, it’s best to treat your lawn by applying a pre-emergent herbicide around April. An atrazine herbicide has an 80% effective rate. However, once weeds have germinated, a post-emergent herbicide would need to be applied. Turfgrass herbicides with 2,4-D (with dicamba & mecoprop or MCPP) or atrazine have good results. These are common chemicals and are represented by many brand names. However, both products need to be applied in cooler temperatures. Consecutive days of temperatures of less than 90 degrees are sufficient; otherwise the chemical will harm the turfgrass. Be aware, some formulations will injure or kill centipede and St. Augustine, but are safe to use on bermuda, bahia and zoysia. Be sure to read the label and follow the directions and precautions.

Non-selective, post-emergent herbicides, like glyphosate (Roundup) can be used in thick patches or for spot treatment. When using a non-selective herbicide, remember to protect turfgrass and other plants from spray drift or any contact, especially regarding ornamental plants and trees. Hand pulling of these weeds is an option, especially in flower beds. Do not shake the soil from the roots. In doing so, you may inadvertently spread seeds.

Soon, temperatures will be low enough to use a post-emergent herbicide for a control method. If you are having issues with chamberbitter or other summer annual broadleaf weeds, remember to plan to apply a pre-emergent herbicide this coming spring. Contact Gulf County Extension at 639-3200 for more information.

Information for this article is from the Clemson Cooperative Extension publication: “Chamberbitter”, Bulletin HCIC 2314: http://www.clemson.edu/extension/hgic/pests/pdf/hgic2314.pdf

UF/IFAS Extension is an Equal Opportunity Institution.

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Author: Ray Bodrey – rbodrey@ufl.edu

Gulf County Extension Director, Agent II Agriculture & Natural Resource, Horticulture, Sea Grant

Ray Bodrey

Permanent link to this article: http://franklin.ifas.ufl.edu/newsletters/2017/09/08/weed-spotlight-chamberbitter-the-little-mimosa/

Weed of the Week: Sicklepod

Weed of the Week: Sicklepod

Gerald Holmes, California Polytechnic State University – Bugwood.org

Sicklepod is commonly known as Coffeeweed and is a major issue for livestock producers across the Southeast. This semi-woody annual legume is native to the American tropics. Sicklepod is known to be toxic, affecting liver, kidney and muscle function in livestock. The stems and leaves, as well as seeds, contain toxins, whether green or dry. 

For help to identify weeds or to develop a control plan for your operation, please contact your county extension agent. 

For more information on this topic please see the following UF/IFAS Publication:

Weed Management in Pastures and Rangeland—2017

 

PG

Author: Kalyn Waters – kalyn.waters@ufl.edu

Holmes County Extension Director working in the areas of Agricultural Management in row crop, natural resources, livestock and forage production. Specialized in Beef Cattle Production in the area of reproductive, nutritional and finical management.
http://holmes.ufl.ifas.edu

Kalyn Waters

Permanent link to this article: http://franklin.ifas.ufl.edu/newsletters/2017/08/25/weed-of-the-week-sicklepod/

Weed of the Week: Goatweed

Weed of the Week: Goatweed

Image 1: Goatweed seeds are very small and are enclosed in yellow to brown capsules. Photo Credit: Dr. Brent Sellers

Once just an issue in Central Florida Orange groves, Goatweed (Scoparia dulcis), also referred to as sweet broom and licorice weed, is now an issue for many pasture owners in North Florida. The spread of this prolific weed has been attributed to many factors including seed production, seed movement from groves to pastures by wildlife and mowing equipment, and its extreme tolerance to many herbicides. Overgrazed pastures, disturbed areas, and sod harvest are prime areas for Goatweed growth.

For help to identify weeds or to develop a control plan for your operation, please contact your county extension agent. 

For more information on this topic please see the following UF/IFAS Publication:

Goatweed Biology and Control in Pastures

 

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Author: Kalyn Waters – kalyn.waters@ufl.edu

Holmes County Extension Director working in the areas of Agricultural Management in row crop, natural resources, livestock and forage production. Specialized in Beef Cattle Production in the area of reproductive, nutritional and finical management.
http://holmes.ufl.ifas.edu

Kalyn Waters

Permanent link to this article: http://franklin.ifas.ufl.edu/newsletters/2017/08/18/weed-of-the-week-goatweed/

Weed of the Week: Southern Sandbur

Weed of the Week: Southern Sandbur

Left: Southern sandbur seedhead. Right: Close-up picture of individual burs. Credit: Hunter Smith

Across the Southern United States, Southern Sandbur (aka sandspur) can be found. It is an annual grass that grows in cropland and pastures, thriving in dry sandy soils. Southern Sandbur has a shallow fibrous root system and can easily invade poorly managed fields or pastures. It is known to impact the quality of hay fields, as well as grazed pastures. Seeds will start to germinate in late spring, with germination continuing through the summer and fall.

For help to identify weeds or for developing a control plan for your operation, please contact your county extension agent. 

For more information on this topic please see the following UF/IFAS Publication:

Identification and Control of Southern Sandbur in Hayfields

 

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Author: Kalyn Waters – kalyn.waters@ufl.edu

Holmes County Extension Director working in the areas of Agricultural Management in row crop, natural resources, livestock and forage production. Specialized in Beef Cattle Production in the area of reproductive, nutritional and finical management.
http://holmes.ufl.ifas.edu

Kalyn Waters

Permanent link to this article: http://franklin.ifas.ufl.edu/newsletters/2017/08/11/weed-of-the-week-southern-sandbur/

Weed of the Week: Showy Crotalaria

Weed of the Week: Showy Crotalaria

Showy crotalaria is a common weed in the Panhandle that is toxic to livestock.  Photo credit: Doug Mayo

Commonly known as Showy Rattlebox, Showy Crotalaria is a fast growing summer annual that germinates in early spring and flowers in late summer. As a member of the legume family, it was brought to the United States to be used as a cover crop to help set nitrogen in dry sandy soils. Showy Crotalaria is toxic to livestock, containing high levels of alkaloids, which commonly cause issues in cattle and horses in the southeastern states.

For help to identify weeds or developing a control plan for your operation, please contact your county extension agent. 

For more information on this topic please see the following UF/IFAS Publication: Weed Snapshot: Showy Crotalaria

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Author: Kalyn Waters – kalyn.waters@ufl.edu

Holmes County Extension Director working in the areas of Agricultural Management in row crop, natural resources, livestock and forage production. Specialized in Beef Cattle Production in the area of reproductive, nutritional and finical management.
http://holmes.ufl.ifas.edu

Kalyn Waters

Permanent link to this article: http://franklin.ifas.ufl.edu/newsletters/2017/08/04/weed-of-the-week-showy-crotalaria/

Lemon bacopa, a beautiful pond plant or a weed?

Lemon bacopa, a beautiful pond plant or a weed?

Bacopa caroliniana, also known as lemon bacopa, is a popular aquatic plant. It is mostly found in the southeastern United States in states such as Florida, Alabama, Georgia, South Carolina, Mississippi and even Texas. Lemon bacopa has a perennial life cycle which could make it a weed to some, or desired plant to others. Also, it can be found submersed or emersed.

Lemon bacopa
Photo: UF

It tends to grow near shorelines and sometimes in water that is less than 3 inches deep. Lemon bacopa has a single stem with opposite leaf growth. The leaves are thick and juicy. The reason some people enjoy and even encourage planting this plant is because of the pretty, attractive, purple-blue flower that sprouts. They are a popular plant used to add beauty to water gardens and to provide habitat in wetland enhancement as well as restoration projects. However, this plant can be easily propagated which could lead to it becoming weedy if not paid attention to carefully. Lemon bacopa roots easily from cuttings, so whether if it is purposely cut or by natural causes it can easily spread and take over a water garden.

 

This species is very adapted and common throughout Florida. Although lemon bacopa can be weedy in some situations, it is most often considered a beneficial native plant that brings a number of desirable characteristics to almost any aquatic setting.

 

Source:  UF IFAS EDIS publications

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Author: zadwiggins – zadwiggins@ufl.edu

zadwiggins

Permanent link to this article: http://franklin.ifas.ufl.edu/newsletters/2017/07/29/lemon-bacopa-a-beautiful-pond-plant-or-a-weed/

Weed of the Week: Tropical Soda Apple

Weed of the Week: Tropical Soda Apple

This week’s featured weed is tropical soda apple, a serious weed problem in many pastures and natural areas of Florida.  This invasive weed is very prolific and can infest a pasture in a very short time.  Its fruit are toxic to goats, and the unpalatable thorny leaves results in reduced forage production and lower stocking rates.  This article provides information about managing this invasive weed.

For help identifying weeds or developing a control plan for your operation, please contact your county extension agent. 

For more information on this topic please see the following UF/IFAS Publication: Tropical Soda Apple: Biology, Ecology, and Management of a Noxious Weed in Florida

 

 

PG

Author: Kalyn Waters – kalyn.waters@ufl.edu

Holmes County Extension Director working in the areas of Agricultural Management in row crop, natural resources, livestock and forage production. Specialized in Beef Cattle Production in the area of reproductive, nutritional and finical management.
http://holmes.ufl.ifas.edu

Kalyn Waters

Permanent link to this article: http://franklin.ifas.ufl.edu/newsletters/2017/07/28/weed-of-the-week-tropical-soda-apple/

Tips for Successful Pond Weed Management

Tips for Successful Pond Weed Management

Weeds can transform a pond from a source of enjoyment to a source of frustration. Utilizing a logical, systematic approach to aquatic weed management can greatly increase your likelihood of success.  UF/IFAS Photo by Tyler Jones.

Every year as the temperatures get warmer the number of calls related to weed problems in fish ponds increases. That was the case this year also, with one notable difference; the calls started coming in March and April, not June and July as they would during a “typical” year. Aquatic weeds typically die back or have greatly reduced growth rates during the winter months.  This past winter was very mild, however, so many aquatic weeds got an early start this spring.  So, what does this mean for pond owners? Whatever level of weed pressure you’ve had in recent years will likely be worse this year. With that in mind, the following are a few suggestions to help you keep your aquatic weed issues under control or, if it’s too late for that, find more success in you control efforts.

Limit nutrients entering you pond

If you are still in a position where you are preventing aquatic weed problems, congratulations. Perhaps the single biggest thing you can do to prevent or limit the severity of aquatic weed infestations is to limit the amount of nutrients that enter you pond. In many instances, aquatic plant growth is limited only by nutrient availability, when nutrients like Nitrogen and Phosphorus are introduced to a pond plant and algal growth can increase dramatically.

Nutrients can come from many sources: fertilizers applied close to the water’s edge, livestock manure, grass clippings and yard waste discarded in the pond, and fish feedd are common sources of nutrients that find their way into farm ponds. Nutrients are often washed into ponds via runoff from the surrounding landscape. A barrier of vegetation around the shoreline can help lessen the amount of runoff that enters the pond. Limiting the amount of nutrients available, and their ability to enter your pond will go a long way to minimize the aggravations associated with aquatic weeds.

Keeping shorelines completely void of vegetation might be more convenient for fishing but bare banks do nothing to prevent run off from entering the pond. Allowing the grass to grow immediately adjacent to the water’s edge would be preferable.  Photo Credit: Mark Mauldin

Monitor your pond closely and address changes quickly

As a pond owner, you, most likely, see your pond more often than anybody else. This puts you in the best position to notice small changes. Aquatic weeds can be dealt with fairly easily and with relatively little expense, if they are addressed when the weeds are new and the infestation is small. This is in stark contrast to the effort and expense that are often associated with cleaning up a severe infestation. Anything that is different is worth noticing and monitoring. Management practices should quickly be applied to any new weeds that show signs of spreading. This close monitoring is also essential after problem weeds have been managed to help insure re-infestation does not occur.

Identify problem weeds – Don’t guess

I wish this suggestion went without saying, but experience has taught me that it is not unheard of for pond owners to undertake a course of action without knowing precisely what weed(s) they are up against. As previously eluded to, aquatic weed control efforts are not easy and can be quite expensive. Don’t risk wasting time and money on a control plan that is not built on solid facts. Take the time to get all the weeds you are fighting identified. Effective management plans are very specific. There is no, best herbicide for all weeds. To further complicate matters, multiple species of aquatic weeds frequently grow mixed together. All problem species will need to be identified and accounted for in the management plan for satisfactory results to be achieved.

Two images of a common combination of aquatic weeds in Washington County, spikerush and filamentous algae. Correctly identifying both of these species is key to developing an effective management plan. Different herbicides would be needed to control each species and grass carp show very different preferences for each species.  Photo Credit: Mark Mauldin

Evaluate all control options

You noticed a new problem weed; you got the weed identified; now you want to do something about it. With aquatic weeds, like most problems in life, you have options. For a given weed scenario there are control measures that will work well, some that won’t work at all, and many that fall somewhere in between. As a pond owner you must balance the effectiveness of a given control option with the associated expense and effort. Control options could include physical removal of the weeds, introduction of herbivorous fish (triploid grass carp), the use of an aquatic herbicide(s), or any combination thereof.

More often than not, my conversations with clients regarding aquatic weed control options, center on the use of aquatic herbicides. There are many products to choose from that vary considerably in their efficacy on specific weed species, price, local availability, and ease of use. Selecting the correct herbicide is crucial. Just because a product is on the shelf at the local retailer does not mean that is the best option for the situation you are facing.

Important!

Note: Even if an appropriate herbicide is selected it must be applied correctly in order to be effective. Carefully read and follow all label instructions when using any herbicide. The keys to effective herbicide use are often in the application information provided in the label.

Don’t be afraid to ask for help

Aquatic weed management is complicated. There are more factors to consider those addressed here. Chances are that if you own a pond, you will have to deal with aquatic weeds this year. Don’t let the situation overwhelm you, approach it with a well thought out plan. There are resources available to assist you; take advantage of them. There are links to a variety of online resources throughout this article. Additionally, your county’s UF/IFAS Extension agent(s) are available to provide you additional information on any of the topic addressed and help you develop a plan for addressing your aquatic weed issues.

For more information related to this topic, use the links to the following publications:

Weed Control in Florida Ponds

Southern Region Aquatic Weed Management: Herbicides

Grass Carp: A Fish for Biological Management of Aquatic Weeds in Florida

 

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Author: Mark Mauldin – mdm83@ufl.edu

I am the Agriculture and Natural Resources agent in Washington County. My program areas include livestock and forage, row crops, and pond management.
http://washington.ifas.ufl.edu

Mark Mauldin

Permanent link to this article: http://franklin.ifas.ufl.edu/newsletters/2017/07/04/tips-for-successful-pond-weed-management/

Weed Control During Drought

Backpack Sprayer in Cogongrass. Photo by Jennifer Bearden

Backpack Sprayer in Cogongrass. Photo by Jennifer Bearden

Herbicide failures are common during extended dry periods. This is frustrating for the pesticide applicator due to wasted time and chemicals.  There are logical reasons why certain herbicides fail during droughts.

There are two main reasons why herbicides fail in drought situations:

  • Less herbicide absorption through the leaf surface (uptake).
  • Translocation of herbicide within the plant is slowed or stopped.

Under drought conditions, plants close the stomata (small openings on the leaf surface) to reduce water evaporation. Plants also will increase the waxy covering on the leaf surface, once again to decrease plant water loss.  Thus, foliar applied herbicides are less likely to be absorbed by drought stressed plants.

Many herbicides such as glyphosate are translocated from the plant uptake site to the site of action (where it kills the plant). Translocation of herbicides is slowed or even stopped since the plants slow or cease to grow during dry periods.  Soil applied herbicides are also not effective during a drought because uptake through the roots is also slowed due to low soil moisture.

Dr. Ramon Leon, UF IFAS Weed Science Specialist, had this to say on the subject, “Ironically, we need healthy weeds for herbicides to be effective. When weeds are stressed, herbicide uptake by leaves and roots and herbicide movement within the weed are reduced, so it is more difficult for the herbicide to get to the place in the plant where it will kill it. This situation is more evident when we apply postemergence herbicides.

What can a pesticide applicator do? The most obvious answer is to wait until the dry conditions improve.  Sometimes, a heavy dewfall is enough moisture for herbicide uptake and translocation.  To overcome the waxy cuticle barrier, applicants should add the appropriate (listed on the label) adjuvant to the sprayer.

For more information: Herbicide Management During Drought from the Noble Foundation

 

PG

Author: Jennifer Bearden – bearden@ufl.edu

Agriculture Agent Okaloosa County

Jennifer Bearden

Permanent link to this article: http://franklin.ifas.ufl.edu/newsletters/2016/12/03/weed-control-during-drought/

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