Tag Archive: Controlling

Controlling Prickly Pear after Pasture Establishment

Controlling Prickly Pear after Pasture Establishment

Photo 1. Prickly Pear after cultivation and pasture establishment in Gadsden County. Credit: Shep Eubanks UF/IFAS

Prickly Pear is one of those tenacious, tough to handle weeds that you hate to find growing in your pastures and hay fields.  It can be very difficult to control and eradicate.  This weed typically spreads and reproduces via fragmentation of original plants, such as occurs in the cultivation and planting of new pastures.  Each individual piece can root and produce a new colony of plants.  Mowing is not a good option for controlling this weed, as it actually encourages rapid increase of the plant population.  The barbed quills are a hazard to grazing livestock and can be a source of infections in addition to decreasing animal utilization of the forage, as livestock will avoid infested areas.

Photo 2. Hand removal of prickly pear in small fields Credit: Shep Eubanks UF/IFAS

Hand removal (Photo 2) is one possible option in small fields, but is very labor intensive and costly.  This operation also can cause increased fragmentation increasing populations of the weed.  Repeated trips across the field will be required but may be the only practical option if the crop is a legume such as perennial peanut.

In grass pastures we do have some options for chemical control.  Dr. Jay Ferrell and Dr. Brent Sellers, UF/IFAS weed specialists, recommend the following plans of attack.

Spot Applications

For spot spray situations, Vista XRT can be applied in water at 0.5 oz. per 1 gal, while TrumpCard can be applied at 2 oz per 1 gal of water. Spray the pads to achieve good coverage but not to the point of runoff. Over-application can result in grass damage, but will not likely be as severe as with the traditional triclopyr and diesel program.

Broadcast Applications

Recent experiments conducted at UF/IFAS have found that broadcast applications of Vista XRT herbicide at a rate of 22 oz/A, applied in either spring or fall, can effectively control prickly pear. Additionally, a split application of Vista XRT at 11 oz/A in the spring followed by another 11 oz/A in the fall was also effective. Likewise, TrumpCard can be applied at 48 oz/A followed by an additional 48oz the following season. Failure to make two applications of TrumpCard with a total of 96 oz over two growing seasons will likely result in marginal control.

Photo 3. Prickly Pear After Herbicide Application. Credit:  Jay Ferrell UF/IFAS

It is important to note that even though Vista XRT and TrumpCard are effective on prickly pear, control is generally very slow. After the application, the quills will turn gray and dry out while the pads will swell and turn a green/gray color (Photo 3). It is common for treated plants to persist this way for 6–8 months after the application. But don’t get discouraged when the plants do not disappear quickly.  This does not mean the herbicide is not working.  Prickly pear grows fairly slowly so it takes longer for the herbicides to take full affect.

For newly established pastures, the Trump Card product label recommends allowing establishment prior to herbicide application.  It is generally recommended that bahiagrass should not be treated with herbicides until the seedlings are at least 6″ tall after planting.  Both herbicides have a seven day grazing restriction following application.

Trump Card Label: 

Do not apply to newly seeded areas until grass is well established. Reseeding is not recommended for at least 30 days following application. Addition of a surfactant may increase the risk of injury to newly seeded grasses.

For more information, use the following UF/IFAS Extension fact sheet link: 

Prickly Pear Cactus Control in Pastures

 

 

PG

Author: Shep Eubanks – bigbuck@ufl.edu

Shep Eubanks is the County Extension Director and Agriculture Agent in Gadsden County.

Shep Eubanks

Permanent link to this article: http://franklin.ifas.ufl.edu/newsletters/2017/09/08/controlling-prickly-pear-after-pasture-establishment/

Alabama Pest Report: Controlling Caterpillars in Vegetables

Alabama Pest Report:  Controlling Caterpillars in Vegetables

Caterpillars1Ayanava Majumdar (Dr. A), Alabama Extension Entomologist

Source:  Alabama IPM Communicator Newsletter

Drought-like conditions is favoring plant-stress and a high incidence of caterpillars on vegetable crops. Insects undergo a rapid life cycle in hot conditions – this can be worse in protected structures with the humidity plus heat. There are several armyworm species active now. We have definitely detected beet armyworm (BAW) activity in vegetable fields with moth numbers ranging 4 to 14. BAW caterpillars have a small dark spot on each side of the body behind the head. Producers may start seeing extensive BAW caterpillar feeding on leaves, followed by feeding on immature fruiting structures. Fall armyworms (FAW) prefer the grass family crops and later migrate to row and horticultural crops. FAW caterpillars are brown with a net-like pattern on their head and a pale yellow band on the top of body. FAW activity appears to be lagging behind BAW activity in crops. Eventually producers will find the yellowstriped armyworm (YAW) on specialty crops; YAW is easily identified from the dark brown body with two bright yellow bands and black triangular spots. Below is a photo of the three commons species to help you compare them. Eggs are generally laid in masses on the underside of leaves.

Armyworms

We have started to notice intense corn earworm (CEW) or tomato fruitworm feeding injury on high tunnel crops. Some feeding from the tomato hornworm (THW) may also be seen in certain areas in the south and central AL. Both these insects lay eggs singly on leaves or fruits. Based on moth trap catches, we have only detected them in low numbers (range 0 to 2 moths); however, considering the fact that female moths can lay about 500 eggs you may have plenty of caterpillars already. Look for the clean round entry holes for the CEW caterpillars on the top of the fruit near the sepals. Most of the time these caterpillars may be feeding with their body partially inside the fruit but sometime the caterpillar may decide to enter the fruit through a large feeding hole and escape your spray treatment in the process. Keep scouting for larvae and small feeding holes for quick detection – then act fast to control caterpillars because they will go from plant-to-plant and from one end to the other end in a high tunnel, devastating the crop.

Side-note:  We have seen plenty of squash bug adults and egg masses shown in the picture below. It is never a good idea to have too many squash bugs since they suck plant sap and transmit the yellow vine decline disease that kills the fruiting vine suddenly. High heat aggravates the injury and plants may succumb to the feeding fast.

Squash bugs June 13, 2016

Control methods in vegetables:

Pest exclusion for organic gardeners and producers:  Pest Exclusion really works well for keeping armyworms, hornworm, and fruitworm moths small gardens, raised beds, and high tunnels in the short- or long-term. Check out the high tunnel pest exclusion (HTPE) webpage for a permanent pest exclusion recommendation. Gardeners can look up the pest exclusion basics webpage for learning about low-cost temporary pest exclusion method.

Organic insecticide treatment for large acres:  Identify the caterpillar correctly – then treat if necessary. Xentari® or Dipel® (both Bt-products) work very well for CEW and THW; Xentari ® is very effective on BAW and FAW, plus other caterpillars. You can also tank-mix Bt with PyGanic (Natural Pyrethrin) or rotate with the insecticides. Whenever you spray Bt, don’t quit before two applications and give it time to kill the insect. Stop spraying when caterpillar numbers are low. Spinosad (Entrust) is also effective against caterpillars and will also kill thrips and other small insect pests. If you detect caterpillars early and spray weekly with a good insecticide rotation and spray coverage, then you can avoid a major caterpillar outbreak. Do not target the moths with any of the applications.

Conventional insecticides:  Refer to Vegetable Handbook (see below) for full recommendations on insecticides. Several synthetic pyrethroids work well against most caterpillars (armyworms can be hard to kill). Alpha cypermethrin (Fastac®) and zeta cypermethrin (Mustang Max®) work well for most species mentioned here, but avoid over-spray to avoid insecticide resistance and getting spider mites. Spinetoram (Radiant ®) is excellent in the late-season high-pressure situation for protecting fruiting structures with long residual action. Producers can rotate Bt-based products (Xentari® as two early applications) followed by synthetic formulations and/or spinetoram as pest-pressures increase during the season.

When in doubt, contact your Extension Agent for specific control recommendations. Remember to use your cell phone camera to capture images and send them on to an agent for quick identification.

Useful resources:

PG

Author: admin – webmaster@ifas.ufl.edu

admin

Permanent link to this article: http://franklin.ifas.ufl.edu/newsletters/2016/06/18/alabama-pest-report-controlling-caterpillars-in-vegetables/

NISAW 2016 – Controlling Weeds in Your Pond: Water Hyacinth

NISAW 2016 – Controlling Weeds in Your Pond: Water Hyacinth

Libbie Johnson

UF IFAS Escambia County Extension

Northwest Florida can be a pond owner’s paradise. There is usually enough rainfall to keep ponds filled, catfish, bass, and brim are well adapted to the environmental conditions, and there is a long season to catch fish.

One of the biggest problems pond owners face is the constant struggle with pond vegetation. Some pond vegetation is good. It provides a cover for young fish, helps stabilize the shoreline or bank, and some vegetative species are attractive wildlife.

However some species are highly invasive and can completely overtake a pond. One such species is water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes).

The water hyacinth is a floating plant, which if left unchecked and allowed to grow to its maximum potential, can weigh up to 200 tons per acre of water. In rivers, it can choke out other vegetation and make navigation difficult to impossible.

Water hyacinth, as an ornamental plant, is a wolf in sheep’s clothing. The plants intertwined and form huge floating mats which can root on muddy surfaces, as seen in the photo below.

The plant will be several inches tall, has showy lavender flowers, with rounded, shiny, smooth leaves. These leaves are attached to spongy stalks that help keep the plants afloat. The prolific roots are dark and feathery.

In Northwest Florida this pest commonly dies back in the winter. Unfortunately it is able to regrow when the weather and water warm.

Water hyacinth is not a native species. It is believed to have been introduced into the U.S. in 1884 at an exposition in New Orleans. Within 70 years of reaching Florida, the plant covered 126,000 acres of waterways (Schmitz et al. 1993).

Water hyacinth is on the FL DACS Prohibited Aquatic Plant List – 5B-64.011. According to Florida Statute 369.25, “No person shall import, transport, cultivate, collect, sell, or possess any noxious aquatic plant listed on the prohibited aquatic plant list established by the department without a permit issued by the department.”

To control a small infestation, the plants can be gathered from the surface, brought to the shore, left to dry and then disposed of in the garbage. There are biological control options—water hyacinth weevils will be useful in keeping the plant populations down.

The spongy petiole helps keeps the plant afloat.

Finally, chemical herbicide options may be the best alternative. University of Florida Aquatic Vegetation Specialist, Dr. Langeland, wrote Efficacy of Herbicide Active Ingredients Against Aquatic Weeds, a good publication that will help you to determine which herbicide will work best for different weeds.

NOTE: The middle of the summer is generally not the ideal time for applying herbicide on pond vegetation. For more information on weed control in Florida ponds, please see Weed Control in Florida Ponds. If you have any questions about identifying a pond weed, contact your local county Extension agent.

PG

Author: Libbie Johnson – libbiej@ufl.edu

Agriculture agent at UF IFAS Escambia County Extension.
http://escambia.ifas.ufl.edu/

Libbie Johnson

Permanent link to this article: http://franklin.ifas.ufl.edu/newsletters/2016/02/24/nisaw-2016-controlling-weeds-in-your-pond-water-hyacinth/

Effectively Controlling Row Crop Weeds Workshop February 19

Effectively Controlling Row Crop Weeds Workshop February 19

Join us on February 19th at 11:00 AM at Grace Fellowship Church (1412 East Nashville Avenue, Atmore, Alabama) to learn more about effectively controlling row crop weeds.  Lunch will be provided.

Topics presented will feature:

  • Resistant Weeds

  • New Herbicides

  • Latest Technologies

  • Best Economical Control

  • Weed Identification

Call the Escambia County Extension Office at 867-7760 by February 11, 2016 to sign up.  If you have any questions, please contact Kim Wilkins.

 

Herbicide resistant palmer amaranth

Herbicide resistant palmer amaranth

PG

Author: Libbie Johnson – libbiej@ufl.edu

Agriculture agent at UF IFAS Escambia County Extension.
http://escambia.ifas.ufl.edu/

Libbie Johnson

Permanent link to this article: http://franklin.ifas.ufl.edu/newsletters/2016/02/13/effectively-controlling-row-crop-weeds-workshop-february-19/

Controlling Rats and Mice around the Farm

Controlling Rats and Mice around the Farm

The Norway rat, roof rat, and house mouse are destructive rodent pests in and around farm facilities. This can be especially true during the winter months, as they seek food and refuge indoors. Rats and mice consume and contaminate feed, gnaw on structural, mechanical, and electrical components, and weaken concrete slabs and walkways with their burrowing activities. They can also potentially carry diseases such as bubonic plague, leptospirosis, rabies, and bacterial food poisoning.

Usually the first signs of rodent infestation are droppings or urine stains in and around buildings, because rats and mice are most active at night. If rodents are seen repeatedly during the day, it is an indication of an established population. It is estimated that for every rodent seen during the day around barns and poultry houses, there are likely 20 to 50 that are unseen.

Effective rodent control involves a three step process. The first step is to “rodent-proof” the structure. This is very difficult because rats and mice can squeeze through holes just large enough to pass their heads through, as small as ¼ for mice and ½ inch for rats. They can climb through pipes, jump vertically three feet, horizontally four feet, and climb wires, cables, vines, and trees to enter a building.

To be effective, rodent-proofing must block all possible entry points. Openings must be sealed with mortar, concrete, sheet metal, or hardware cloth (19 gauge or heavier with no openings more than ¼ inch) around augers, pipes and wires where they enter structures. Also, corrugated metal siding should be sealed and corner seams made tight.

Good sanitation is step number two. Food, water, and nesting material must be eliminated. Recommended practices include:

  • Clean up debris and trash.
  • Store feed in metal cans with tight fitting lids.
  • Keep grass short and maintain at least a 3-foot space around the building that is free of brush, trash, and weeds.
  • Dry up water sources such as dripping faucets or leaking pipes.
Rattus rattus male

Janet Hurley~ Texas A&M Agrilife Extension Service~ Bugwood.org

The third step is population reduction with traps and baits. Since rodents have a small home range, rats travel no more than 100 feet and mice less than 30 feet from their nesting site, trapping is an effective, quick and economical method of control. Trapping is often underrated, especially where only a few rodents are present. Common snap traps, glue boards, and live traps can be used to supplement baiting programs, or in situations where baits may pose a hazard. Traps should be placed along walls, near holes, or at right angles along beams, rafters, or other travel ways. Traps may be baited with a variety of food items such as whole nuts, peanut butter, or small pieces of meat.

There are many different types of rodenticides (poison baits) on the market. They may be formulated as bar baits, pellets, concentrates, or tracking powders (Table 1). In most situations, ready-to-use commercial baits are preferred over mix-your-own baits, because they do not require the applicator to handle a concentrated toxicant. Bar baits are formulated with a high wax content for outdoor use and high humidity areas. Pellets are formulated with grain and a binder that holds the pellet together for indoor use. Concentrates and tracking powders are occasionally used by professional pest control operators.

Rodenticides are classified into two broad chemical groups: anticoagulants and non-anticoagulants. The older, or first generation, anticoagulants were first discovered in the 1940s. Warfarin was the first on the market and became the best known and most widely used. However, its use is limited today due to resistance and newer, more potent anticoagulants that are available. Most of the first generation anticoagulants are multiple-dose baits: that is they cause death only after they are eaten several days in a row. The newer second generation anticoagulants are effective after a single dose. These include brodifacoum, bromadiolone, and difethialone. The single-dose anticoagulants are generally effective against rodents resistant to the older multi-dose compounds.

The two most common non-anticoagulant baits are bromethalin and cholecalciferol or vitamin D³. Bromethalin kills rodents by shutting down their ability to produce energy within the cells of the body. A single-dose is usually lethal within 1 to 3 days. It is considered safe, and a minor threat of secondary poisoning, because it causes the rodent to stop feeding days before it dies, so most of the poison has been excreted prior to death and possible ingestion by a predator or pet. Cholecalciferol is a calcium releaser that causes too much calcium to be released into the blood, disrupting body functions. Cholecalciferol kills anticoagulant resistant rodents and there is no problem of secondary poisoning of pets or wildlife that eat poisoned rodents. Cholecalciferol will act as a single-dose poison, if a sufficient amount is consumed by a rodent in one feeding, but it will act as a multiple-dose poison if consumed in lesser amounts over several days.

Zinc phosphide is a single-dose bait which has been used for many years. This is a restricted-use product, which is mostly used for agricultural rodent control, because it offers little risk of secondary poisoning of beneficial predators. However, it has no antidote and is not appropriate for use around children, pets, or livestock.

When using rodenticides, safety must be the first consideration. Poison baits must be placed where they are inaccessible to children, pets, livestock, and wildlife. Tamper-proof bait stations should be used where rodent runs are exposed and in all outdoor situations.

 

Table 1. Common Rodenticide Baits

Active Ingredient Trade Names Type Formulation Dose Required

ANTICOAGULANTS

chlorophacinone Rozol, Ramucide, Microzul, other brands 1st generation Tracking powder, pellets, blocks, concentrate Multiple dose; death 5-7 days after feeding.
diphacinone Ramik Green, Contrax-D, Ditrac, Trap-N-Sak, other brands 1st generation Pellets, place packs, bait blocks Multiple dose; death 5-7 days after feeding.
pindone Pival, Pivalyn 1st generation Bait packs and blocks, bulk Multiple dose; death 5-10 days after feeding.
warfarin Ferret, Contrax, other brands 1st generation Place packs, bulk Multiple dose; death 5-10 days after feeding.
brodifacoum Attack, Havoc, Jaguar, D-Con, Talon, other brands 2nd generation Place packs, bulk, pellets, bait blocks Single dose; death 5-7 days after feeding.
bromadiolone Boot Hill, Contrac, Hawk, Just One Bite, Maki, Tomcat 2, other brands 2nd generation Place packs, bulk pellets, bait blocks Single dose; death 5-7 days after feeding.
difethialone Generation, Hombre 2nd generation Pellets, place packs, bait blocks Single dose; death 5-7 days after feeding.

NON-ANTICOAGULANTS

bromethalin Assualt, Fastrac, Vengeance, Tomcat, Trounce, other brands Neurotoxin Place packs, bulk, bait blocks Single dose; death 2-4 days after feeding.
cholecalciferol Rampage, Quintox, Terad3 Blox, other brands Vitamin D³ calcium releaser Place packs, bait blocks Single or multiple dose; death 3-5 days after feeding.
Zinc phosphide

“Restricted-Use Pesticide”

Many brands Stomach poisoning from phosphine gas formation. Pellets, mixed grains Single dose (acute); quick knock down.

 

For more information, refer to the following publications used as resources for this article:

 

PG

Author: Michael Donahoe – mcd@ufl.edu

Michael Donahoe is the County Extension Director in Santa Rosa County. His educational program focuses on agronomic crop production with primarly responsibilities in integrated pest management and cotton production.

Michael Donahoe

Permanent link to this article: http://franklin.ifas.ufl.edu/newsletters/2016/01/30/controlling-rats-and-mice-around-the-farm/

Tips on Controlling Ants

Tips on Controlling Ants

The proverbial picnic scene aside, ants are pests all of us have to deal with from time to time.  Both inside and outside our homes, they feed on and contaminate our food, they build ugly mounds on our lawns, and some ants can inflict painful bites or stings.

Several species of ants are found in Florida.  The most common can be grouped into three categories:  House-infesting ants, yard infesting ants, and carpenter ants.  In this article we’ll talk about ant biology and behavior and how to control them.

Florida Carpenter Ants. Photo credit: UF/IFAS.

Florida Carpenter Ants. Photo credit: UF/IFAS.

Ants have a life cycle similar to many other insects.  They go from egg, to larva, to pupa, to adult.  Eggs are almost microscopic in size and hatch into soft legless larvae.  The pupa resembles the adult ant, except it is soft, uncolored and immobile.  It can take from six weeks to two months from egg to adult.

Ants are social insects.  They live in colonies much like bees do.  Most colonies have a queen ant, male ants, and worker or female ants.  Colonies are started by queens, whose primary function is reproduction.  The queen may live for many years and is usually replaced by a daughter queen.  Males are produced in very old or large colonies, and their sole function is to mate with the unfertilized female, after which, they die.  Worker ants construct, repair and defend the nest, provide food for the colony, and take care of the young ants.

Most ants are omnivorous, which means they will eat anything, through some do have specialized food habits.  Ants locate food by random searching; when one ant finds food, she informs the other workers in the colony.  The exact method of communication is unknown, but in some cases, ants can leave scent trails that other ants can follow to the food source.

Because ants are attracted to any type of food or food particles, your best bet to controlling ants inside your home is to keep it very clean.  Store food in airtight containers.  Never substitute insecticides for inadequate housekeeping.

The key to eliminating ants is locating and destroying the colony.  Sometimes this can be a real problem, because ants are very adaptable. Outdoor nesting species can sometime nest indoors and vice versa, depending, on the food supply.

To find the ant colony, you have to watch the movement of the ants very closely.  Outdoors, many ants are easy to locate, because they deposit earth on the soil surface, and form ant hills.  But some outdoor ants build nests under house foundations, in decaying logs, and tree trunks.  These can be difficult to locate indoors.  Ants may nest in walls, behind baseboards, in cracks, and in decaying wood.

Spray, dusts, granules, and baits can be useful in controlling ants.  When using these products, treat baseboards, door and window frames, and cracks and crevices between walls and flooring.  Treat all areas where ants appear to have trails. If the nest is located, apply an insecticide to the nest according to the pesticide label.

For more information:

Ants

Fire Ants

Carpenter Ants

 

PG

Author: Roy Carter – rlcarter@ufl.edu

Roy Carter

Permanent link to this article: http://franklin.ifas.ufl.edu/newsletters/2015/05/27/tips-on-controlling-ants/

Controlling Weeds in Your Pond: Water Hyacinth

Libbie Johnson

UF IFAS Escambia County Extension

Northwest Florida can be a pond owner’s paradise. There is usually enough rainfall to keep ponds filled, catfish, bass, and brim are well adapted to the environmental conditions, and there is a long season to catch fish.

One of the biggest problems pond owners face is the constant struggle with pond vegetation. Some pond vegetation is good. It provides a cover for young fish, helps stabilize the shoreline or bank, and some vegetative species are attractive wildlife.

However some species are highly invasive and can completely overtake a pond. One such species is water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes).

The water hyacinth is a floating plant, which if left unchecked and allowed to grow to its maximum potential, can weigh up to 200 tons per acre of water. In rivers, it can choke out other vegetation and make navigation difficult to impossible.

Water hyacinth, as an ornamental plant, is a wolf in sheep’s clothing. The plants intertwined and form huge floating mats which can root on muddy surfaces, as seen in the photo below.

The plant will be several inches tall, has showy lavender flowers, with rounded, shiny, smooth leaves. These leaves are attached to spongy stalks that help keep the plants afloat. The prolific roots are dark and feathery.

In Northwest Florida this pest commonly dies back in the winter. Unfortunately it is able to regrow when the weather and water warm.

The spongy petiole helps keeps the plant afloat.

Water hyacinth is not a native species. It is believed to have been introduced into the U.S. in 1884 at an exposition in New Orleans. Within 70 years of reaching Florida, the plant covered 126,000 acres of waterways (Schmitz et al. 1993).

Water hyacinth is on the FL DACS Prohibited Aquatic Plant List – 5B-64.011. According to Florida Statute 369.25, “No person shall import, transport, cultivate, collect, sell, or possess any noxious aquatic plant listed on the prohibited aquatic plant list established by the department without a permit issued by the department.”

To control a small infestation, the plants can be gathered from the surface, brought to the shore, left to dry and then disposed of in the garbage. There are biological control options—water hyacinth weevils will be useful in keeping the plant populations down.

Finally, chemical herbicide options may be the best alternative. University of Florida Aquatic Vegetation Specialist, Dr. Langeland, wrote Efficacy of Herbicide Active Ingredients Against Aquatic Weeds, a good publication that will help you to determine which herbicide will work best for different weeds.

NOTE: The middle of the summer is generally not the ideal time for applying herbicide on pond vegetation. For more information on weed control in Florida ponds, please see Weed Control in Florida Ponds. If you have any questions about identifying a pond weed, contact your local county Extension agent.

Libbie Johnson

Permanent link to this article: http://franklin.ifas.ufl.edu/newsletters/2012/08/06/controlling-weeds-in-your-pond-water-hyacinth/

Revised UF Publication on Controlling Invasive Exotic Plants in North Florida Forests

Photo Credit: UGA Bugwood

Controlling Invasive Exotic Plants in North Florida Forests (SSFOR19/FR133)

Invasive non-native organisms are one of the greatest threats to the natural ecosystems of the United States. Invasive plants reduce biodiversity, encroach on endangered and threatened species, and rob native species of habitat. This 8-page fact sheet describes many of the current methods used to manage some of the more common and troublesome invasive exotic plants in north Florida forests, such as tallow trees, privet, climbing fern, kudzu and cogongrass. Written by Chris Demers, Alan Long and Rick Williams, and published by the UF Department of School of Forest Resources and Conservation, and revised January 2012.

http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/FR/FR13300.pdf

 

Kudzu photo credit: UGA Bugwood

Doug Mayo

Permanent link to this article: http://franklin.ifas.ufl.edu/newsletters/2012/05/01/revised-uf-publication-on-controlling-invasive-exotic-plants-in-north-florida-forests/